Bernadette M. Fitzgibbon

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This paper reviews the current literature on "empathy for pain", the ability to understand pain observed in another person, in the context of a newly documented form of pain empathy "synaesthesia for pain". In synaesthesia for pain a person not only empathises with another's pain but experiences the observed or imagined pain as if it was their own. Neural(More)
Synaesthesia for pain is a phenomenon where a person experiences pain when observing or imagining another in pain. Anecdotal reports of this type of experience have most commonly occurred in individuals who have lost a limb. Distinct from phantom pain, synaesthesia for pain is triggered specifically in response to pain in another. Here, we provide the first(More)
Recent research suggests the observation or imagination of somatosensory stimulation in another (e.g., touch or pain) can induce a similar somatosensory experience in oneself. Some researchers have presented this experience as a type of synaesthesia, whereas others consider it an extreme experience of an otherwise normal perception. Here, we present an(More)
Mirror neurons are thought to facilitate emotion processing, but it is unclear whether the valence of an emotional presentation (positive or negative) can influence subsequent mirror neuron activity. Participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment that involved stimulation of the primary motor cortex, and electromyography recording(More)
Interpersonal motor resonance (IMR) is presumed to result from activity within the human mirror neuron system, which itself is thought to comprise the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Twenty healthy adults underwent anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to either IPL or IFG immediately(More)
There are increasing reports of people experiencing pain when observing pain in another. This describes the phenomenon of synaesthetic pain which, until recently, had been primarily reported in amputees with phantom pain. In the current study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate how amputees who experience synaesthetic pain process pain(More)
INTRODUCTION The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is emerging as a powerful tool for causally investigating cortical mechanisms and networks. However, various artefacts contaminate TMS-EEG recordings, particularly over regions such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aim of this study was(More)
Observing noxious injury to another's hand is known to induce corticospinal inhibition that can be measured in the observer's corresponding muscle. Here, we investigated whether acquired pain synesthetes, individuals who experience actual pain when observing injury to another, demonstrate less corticospinal inhibition than do controls during pain(More)
'Mirror pain' describes when the observation of another's pain experience induces a personal experience of pain. It has been suggested that mirror pain could result from changes in neural excitability or inhibition. In this study we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate motor cortical excitability in lower-limb amputees who experience(More)
  • P B Fitzgerald, Klein Mm, Treister R Raij, Pascual-Leone A, Park L, Nurmikko T Lenz +33 others
  • 2016
parameters and that subjects should have clearly defined pain conditions suitable for motor cortex rTMS. Although we agree for the need to standardise all assessment tools, condition-specific instruments, and consensus-recommended metrics, we believe that it is too early to standardise rTMS parameters or to limit treatment option to groups amenable to motor(More)