Learn More
This paper reviews the current literature on "empathy for pain", the ability to understand pain observed in another person, in the context of a newly documented form of pain empathy "synaesthesia for pain". In synaesthesia for pain a person not only empathises with another's pain but experiences the observed or imagined pain as if it was their own. Neural(More)
Synaesthesia for pain is a phenomenon where a person experiences pain when observing or imagining another in pain. Anecdotal reports of this type of experience have most commonly occurred in individuals who have lost a limb. Distinct from phantom pain, synaesthesia for pain is triggered specifically in response to pain in another. Here, we provide the first(More)
Mirror neurons are thought to facilitate emotion processing, but it is unclear whether the valence of an emotional presentation (positive or negative) can influence subsequent mirror neuron activity. Participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment that involved stimulation of the primary motor cortex, and electromyography recording(More)
Recent research suggests the observation or imagination of somatosensory stimulation in another (e.g., touch or pain) can induce a similar somatosensory experience in oneself. Some researchers have presented this experience as a type of synaesthesia, whereas others consider it an extreme experience of an otherwise normal perception. Here, we present an(More)
Interpersonal motor resonance (IMR) is presumed to result from activity within the human mirror neuron system, which itself is thought to comprise the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Twenty healthy adults underwent anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to either IPL or IFG immediately(More)
There are increasing reports of people experiencing pain when observing pain in another. This describes the phenomenon of synaesthetic pain which, until recently, had been primarily reported in amputees with phantom pain. In the current study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate how amputees who experience synaesthetic pain process pain(More)
INTRODUCTION The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is emerging as a powerful tool for causally investigating cortical mechanisms and networks. However, various artefacts contaminate TMS-EEG recordings, particularly over regions such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aim of this study was(More)
Noninvasive brain stimulation is increasingly being investigated for the enhancement of cognition, yet current approaches appear to be limited in their degree and duration of effects. The majority of studies to date have delivered stimulation in "standard" ways (i.e., anodal transcranial direct current stimulation or high-frequency transcranial magnetic(More)
'Mirror pain' describes when the observation of another's pain experience induces a personal experience of pain. It has been suggested that mirror pain could result from changes in neural excitability or inhibition. In this study we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate motor cortical excitability in lower-limb amputees who experience(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a recognized complication of hepatic cirrhosis, most commonly associated with alcohol excess, haemochromatosis and chronic hepatitis B infection. Long-standing hepatic venous congestion may cause cirrhosis. A search of the literature has not revealed a case of hepatocellular carcinoma complicating cardiac cirrhosis. A case is(More)