Bernadette F. Ardelli

Learn More
In vertebrates, the function of P-glycoprotein (PGP) is to protect against toxic compounds through active efflux of the toxin from target tissues. In clinical oncology, the overexpression of PGP confers drug resistance. The function(s) of PGP in nematode physiology or in conferring drug resistance is less understood. The objective of this study was to(More)
The avermectins and the milbemycins are structurally related classes of 16-membered macrocyclic lactones (ML) that have a broad spectrum of activity. Most studies on the mode of action of ML have used the avermectin, ivermectin (IVM). IVM activates glutamate-gated chloride channels that contain alpha-type subunits, resulting in a hyperpolarization of the(More)
Ivermectin (IVM) was first developed for use with livestock. It is now the only drug used for mass treatment of onchocerciasis. It is difficult to prove whether reports of sub-optimal responses to IVM in some Onchocerca volvulus infected patients are a result of drug resistance, as procedures typically used to examine IVM efficacy in livestock can not be(More)
The completion of a number of nematode genomes has provided significant information on ABC systems in these organisms. Nematodes have more ABC systems genes and greater diversity than do mammalian species. Class 1 and class 2 ABC systems, more commonly known as ABC transporters, are present. As in other organisms, nematode ABC systems are characterized by a(More)
Treatment with ivermectin (IVM) is known to cause a loss of polymorphism at certain loci of the beta-tubulin, gamma-aminobutyric-acid-receptor, glutamate-gated-chloride-channel and ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter genes of IVM-resistant Haemonchus contortus. The genetic variation of four ABC-transporter homologues from Onchocerca volvulus was(More)
Widespread use of ivermectin (IVM) as part of the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa could influence the evolution of the human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Use of IVM, in some areas for 15 years, may have restricted genetic diversity of O. volvulus, resembling effects attributed to a population bottleneck. Large population-based(More)
ABC systems are one of the largest described protein superfamilies. These systems have a domain organization that may contain 1 or more transmembrane domains (ABC_TM1F) and 1 or 2 ATP-binding domains (ABC_2). The functions (e.g., import, export and DNA repair) of these proteins distinguish the 3 classes of ABC systems. Mining and PCR-based cloning were used(More)
The effect of ivermectin and moxidectin on the motility of Brugia malayi adults and microfilariae and on the fertility of B. malayi females was examined. Motility was reduced in adults after exposure to both drugs and worms were non-motile and dead within eight days. The motility of microfilariae was significantly reduced at all drug concentrations and(More)
ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems are a diverse group of proteins that have been identified in every organism, from bacteria to humans. Analysis of nematode genomes indicates that the number and arrangement of ABC systems are similar to other organisms, with the majority being ABC transporters. There are few functional studies of ABC transporters in(More)
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters comprise a large paralogous protein family and several confer drug resistance. Ivermectin (IVM) is the only drug approved for treatment of onchocerciasis and is a substrate for some ABC transporters. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that IVM selects on some ABC transporter genes in Onchocerca volvulus and(More)