Bernadette C. Young

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A robust high-throughput multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Clostridium difficile was developed and validated using a diverse collection of 50 reference isolates representing 45 different PCR ribotypes and 102 isolates from recent clinical samples. A total of 49 PCR ribotypes were represented overall. All isolates were typed by MLST and yielded 40(More)
Whole-genome sequencing offers new insights into the evolution of bacterial pathogens and the etiology of bacterial disease. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of bacteria-associated mortality and invasive disease and is carried asymptomatically by 27% of adults. Eighty percent of bacteremias match the carried strain. However, the role of evolutionary(More)
Horizontal gene transfer is an important driver of bacterial evolution, but genetic exchange in the core genome of clonal species, including the major pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, is incompletely understood. Here we reveal widespread homologous recombination in S. aureus at the species level, in contrast to its near-complete absence between closely(More)
We reported previously that accumulation of myelin basic protein (MBP) in foetal brain aggregate cultures is enhanced by supplementation with peritoneal macrophages. The present study demonstrates that the rate of MBP accumulation in macrophage-enriched cultures continues to increase over time unaccompanied by a matching increase in the oligodendrocyte(More)
Two recently completed phase 3 trials (003 and 004) showed fidaxomicin to be noninferior to vancomycin for curing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and superior for reducing CDI recurrences. In both studies, adults with active CDI were randomized to receive blinded fidaxomicin 200 mg twice daily or vancomycin 125 mg 4 times a day for 10 days. Post hoc(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of healthcare associated mortality, but like many important bacterial pathogens, it is a common constituent of the normal human body flora. Around a third of healthy adults are carriers. Recent evidence suggests that evolution of S. aureus during nasal carriage may be associated with progression to invasive(More)
Bacterial virulence is a multifaceted trait where the interactions between pathogen and host factors affect the severity and outcome of the infection. Toxin secretion is central to the biology of many bacterial pathogens and is widely accepted as playing a crucial role in disease pathology. To understand the relationship between toxicity and bacterial(More)
Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (i) to describe an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in our population; (ii) to identify the potential source of this outbreak by examining antibiotic resistance trends in urocultures; (iii) to evaluate the contribution of this outbreak to resistance patterns over time in the two commonest(More)
446 Virulence Volume 3 Issue 5 Recent studies have identified cytoskeletal elements in bacteria which play important roles in cellular morphology, cell division, DNA segregation and the establishment of cell polarity. However, our understanding of the contribution the bacterial cytoskeleton makes toward virulence is lacking. The MreB protein is a bacterial(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen, which causes severe blood and tissue infections that frequently emerge by autoinfection with asymptomatically carried nose and skin populations. However, recent studies report that bloodstream isolates differ systematically from those found in the nose and skin, exhibiting reduced toxicity toward(More)