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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants.(More)
Somatostatin-containing neurons of the striatum constitute fewer than 5% of the total neuronal population. Their involvement in the feedforward inhibition of the spiny projection neurons, the modulation of other interneurons, and the regulation of regional blood flow indicates that this small population of neurons plays an important role in the processing(More)
Inflammation is a hallmark of stroke pathology. The cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6, modulate tissue injury in experimental stroke and are therefore potential targets in future stroke therapy. The effect of these cytokines on infarct evolution depends on their availability in the ischemic penumbra in the early phase(More)
Entrance of mesodermal precursors into the developing CNS is the most well-accepted origin of microglia. However, the contribution of proliferation and death of recruited microglial precursors to the final microglial cell population remains to be elucidated. To investigate microglial proliferation and apoptosis during development, we combined proliferating(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1beta is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-alpha may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We investigated whether IL-1beta and TNF-alpha are synthesized by(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of(More)
Microglia and infiltrating leukocytes are considered major producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is a crucial player in cerebral ischemia and brain inflammation. We have identified a neuroprotective role for microglial-derived TNF in cerebral ischemia in mice. We show that cortical infarction and behavioral deficit are significantly exacerbated in(More)
The N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are bioactive lipids that can modulate inflammatory responses and protect neurons against glutamatergic excitotoxicity. We have used a model of focal cerebral ischemia in young adult mice to investigate the relationship between focal cerebral ischemia and endogenous NAEs. Over the first 24 h(More)
This study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, isolated as principal bioactive component from the medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, in a marmoset MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The methoxy-substituted catechol apocynin has a similar structure as homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of dopamine (DA).(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are normally associated with destruction of myelin and axonal damage. However, in acute MS plaque, remyelination occurs concurrent with T-cell infiltration, which raises the question of whether T cells might stimulate myelin repair. We investigated the effect of myelin-specific T cells on oligodendrocyte(More)