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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants.(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known to be expressed in brain ischemia; however, its cellular and temporal appearance is not fully settled. In this study, nonradioactive in situ hybridization for murine TNF mRNA was performed on brain sections from adult C57x129 mice at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, 5 days, or 10 days(More)
Microglia and infiltrating leukocytes are considered major producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is a crucial player in cerebral ischemia and brain inflammation. We have identified a neuroprotective role for microglial-derived TNF in cerebral ischemia in mice. We show that cortical infarction and behavioral deficit are significantly exacerbated in(More)
Inflammation is a hallmark of stroke pathology. The cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6, modulate tissue injury in experimental stroke and are therefore potential targets in future stroke therapy. The effect of these cytokines on infarct evolution depends on their availability in the ischemic penumbra in the early phase(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1β is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-α may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We investigated whether IL-1β and TNF-α are synthesized by overlapping or segregated populations of(More)
Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats leads to infarction of the lateral part of the striatum and adjacent neocortex, with selective neuronal necrosis in the bordering penumbral zones. Administration of glutamate, cytokine, and leukocyte antagonists have rescued mainly neocortical neurons, indicating differences in the degenerative processes.(More)
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is known to play a central role in ischemia-induced brain damage in rodents. In comparison to the rat, however, the available data on the cellular synthesis of IL-1beta mRNA and protein in the mouse are very limited. Here, we report on the time profile, the topography and the quantitative, cellular expression of IL-1beta mRNA in(More)
Somatostatin-containing neurons of the striatum constitute fewer than 5% of the total neuronal population. Their involvement in the feedforward inhibition of the spiny projection neurons, the modulation of other interneurons, and the regulation of regional blood flow indicates that this small population of neurons plays an important role in the processing(More)
We developed a double staining technique for simultaneous demonstration of astrocytes and microglial cells in histological brain sections and cell cultures. The procedure included a histochemical stain specific for microglial cells and an immunocytochemical stain specific for astroglial cells, with postponement of the final visualization of the staining(More)