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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants.(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known to be expressed in brain ischemia; however, its cellular and temporal appearance is not fully settled. In this study, nonradioactive in situ hybridization for murine TNF mRNA was performed on brain sections from adult C57x129 mice at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, 5 days, or 10 days(More)
Inflammation is a hallmark of stroke pathology. The cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6, modulate tissue injury in experimental stroke and are therefore potential targets in future stroke therapy. The effect of these cytokines on infarct evolution depends on their availability in the ischemic penumbra in the early phase(More)
We developed a double staining technique for simultaneous demonstration of astrocytes and microglial cells in histological brain sections and cell cultures. The procedure included a histochemical stain specific for microglial cells and an immunocytochemical stain specific for astroglial cells, with postponement of the final visualization of the staining(More)
Microglia and infiltrating leukocytes are considered major producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is a crucial player in cerebral ischemia and brain inflammation. We have identified a neuroprotective role for microglial-derived TNF in cerebral ischemia in mice. We show that cortical infarction and behavioral deficit are significantly exacerbated in(More)
The potentially neurotrophic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is locally expressed following human stroke and experimental ischemic lesions, but the cellular source(s) and profile of induction have so far not been established in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. This study presents the time course and a cellular localization of(More)
Somatostatin-containing neurons of the striatum constitute fewer than 5% of the total neuronal population. Their involvement in the feedforward inhibition of the spiny projection neurons, the modulation of other interneurons, and the regulation of regional blood flow indicates that this small population of neurons plays an important role in the processing(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have analyzed the relative effects of the stage(More)
During the prenatal development of the hippocampus, microglial cell precursors progressively occur in all subfields in accordance with known ontogenetic gradients of the region (Dalmau et al., J. Comp. Neurol. 1997a;377:70-84). The present study follows the regional distribution of these microglial cell precursors and their morphological differentiation in(More)