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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants.(More)
Inflammation is a hallmark of stroke pathology. The cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6, modulate tissue injury in experimental stroke and are therefore potential targets in future stroke therapy. The effect of these cytokines on infarct evolution depends on their availability in the ischemic penumbra in the early phase(More)
The potentially neurotrophic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is locally expressed following human stroke and experimental ischemic lesions, but the cellular source(s) and profile of induction have so far not been established in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. This study presents the time course and a cellular localization of(More)
Somatostatin-containing neurons of the striatum constitute fewer than 5% of the total neuronal population. Their involvement in the feedforward inhibition of the spiny projection neurons, the modulation of other interneurons, and the regulation of regional blood flow indicates that this small population of neurons plays an important role in the processing(More)
During the prenatal development of the hippocampus, microglial cell precursors progressively occur in all subfields in accordance with known ontogenetic gradients of the region (Dalmau et al., J. Comp. Neurol. 1997a;377:70-84). The present study follows the regional distribution of these microglial cell precursors and their morphological differentiation in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have analyzed the relative effects of the stage(More)
We developed a double staining technique for simultaneous demonstration of astrocytes and microglial cells in histological brain sections and cell cultures. The procedure included a histochemical stain specific for microglial cells and an immunocytochemical stain specific for astroglial cells, with postponement of the final visualization of the staining(More)
Transection of the entorhino-dentate perforant path is a well known model for lesion-induced axonal sprouting and glial reactions in the rat. In this study, we have characterized the microglial reaction in the dentate molecular layer of the SJL/J and C57Bl/6 mouse. The morphological transformation of the microglial cells and their densitometrically measured(More)
Entrance of mesodermal precursors into the developing CNS is the most well-accepted origin of microglia. However, the contribution of proliferation and death of recruited microglial precursors to the final microglial cell population remains to be elucidated. To investigate microglial proliferation and apoptosis during development, we combined proliferating(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1beta is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-alpha may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We investigated whether IL-1beta and TNF-alpha are synthesized by(More)