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The binding of TCRs to their peptide-MHC ligands is characterized by a low affinity, slow kinetics, and a high degree of cross-reactivity. Here, we report the results of a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of two TCRs binding to their peptide-MHC ligands, which reveal two striking features. First, significant activation energy barriers must be overcome(More)
The two-allele NcoI Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the TNF alpha region yielding bands of 5.5 and 10.5 kb was investigated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (P-JRA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). In all four disease, we found a decreased(More)
The objective of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of islet cell antibodies (ICA) and insulin autoantibodies (IAA) for development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM). Two hundred and forty-one previous diet-treated GDM patients and 57 women without previous GDM were examined 2-11 years after the index(More)
Peptides derived from almost all proteins, including disease-associated proteins, can be presented on the cell surface as peptide-human leukocyte antigen (pHLA) complexes. T cells specifically recognize pHLA with their clonally rearranged T-cell receptors (TCRs), whose natural affinities are limited to approximately 1-100 muM. Here we describe the display(More)
The T cell surface glycoprotein CD8 enhances T cell antigen recognition by binding to MHC class I molecules. We show that human CD8 alphaalpha binds to the MHC class I molecule HLA-A2 with an extremely low affinity (Kd approximately 0.2 mM at 37 degrees C) and with kinetics that are between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude faster than reported for T cell(More)
The production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) by lipopolysaccharide-activated mononuclear cells from 39 healthy donors was studied in vitro by bioassay and ELISA. The donors were typed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DP antigens. There was no detectable production of TNF beta (lymphotoxin). The intracellular levels of bioactive TNF(More)
The crystal structure of the nonclassical human class lb MHC molecule HLA-E has been determined in complex with a prototypic ligand, the nonamer peptide (VMAPRTVLL), derived from the highly conserved residues 3-11 of the human MHC class la leader sequence. The mode of peptide binding retains some of the standard features observed in MHC class la complexes,(More)
T cell recognition is initiated by the binding of TCRs to peptide-MHCs (pMHCs), the interaction being characterized by weak affinity and fast kinetics. Previously, only 16 natural TCR/pMHC interactions have been measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Of these, 5 are murine class I, 5 are murine class II, and 6 are human class I-restricted responses.(More)
An obstacle to cancer immunotherapy has been that the affinity of T-cell receptors (TCRs) for antigens expressed in tumors is generally low. We initiated clinical testing of engineered T cells expressing an affinity-enhanced TCR against HLA-A*01-restricted MAGE-A3. Open-label protocols to test the TCRs for patients with myeloma and melanoma were initiated.(More)
HIV's considerable capacity to vary its HLA-I-restricted peptide antigens allows it to escape from host cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Nevertheless, therapeutics able to target HLA-I-associated antigens, with specificity for the spectrum of preferred CTL escape mutants, could prove effective. Here we use phage display to isolate and enhance a T-cell(More)