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Hypoxic regions are frequent in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common type of malignant adult brain tumor, and increased levels of tumor hypoxia have been associated with worse clinical outcomes. To unmask genes important in hypoxia, we treated GBM neurospheres in hypoxia and identified monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT4) as one of the most upregulated(More)
Dysregulation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been implicated in glioma pathogenesis. Yet, the role of this pathway in gliomagenesis remains controversial because of the lack of relevant animal models. Using the cytokeratin 5 promoter, we ectopically expressed a constitutively active zebrafish Smoothened (Smoa1) in neural progenitor cells and analyzed(More)
Crystal storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a rare disorder characterized by the accumulation of crystalline material in the cytoplasm of histiocytes. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) with CSH is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of crystal storing histiocytosis involving the CNS. Using immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry we(More)
A number of recent studies have indicated that T cells can be stimulated to attack transplanted brain tumors in rodent models. As IL-12 has been shown to activate cytotoxic T cell responses, we tested the idea that it might stimulate a T cell response against endogenous brain tumors that arise in SV40 large T Ag transgenic mice (SV11). SV11 mice develop(More)
The T-cell receptor (TCR) determines the specificity of T-cell recognition by binding to peptide fragments of intracellular proteins presented at the cell surface in association with molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Engagement of the TCR by its cognate peptide/MHC ligand, with appropriate co-stimulatory signals, leads to activation(More)
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