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1. Subjects lifted an object with two parallel vertical grip surfaces and a low centre of gravity using the precision grip between the tips of the thumb and index finger. The friction between the object and the digits was varied independently at each digit by changing the contact surfaces between lifts. 2. With equal frictional conditions at the two grip(More)
Strong motivation for developing new prosthetic hand devices is provided by the fact that low functionality and controllability-in addition to poor cosmetic appearance-are the most important reasons why amputees do not regularly use their prosthetic hands. This paper presents the design of the CyberHand, a cybernetic anthropomorphic hand intended to provide(More)
The mean firing rate evoked in 70 cutaneous, low-threshold mechanoreceptors in the human median, radial, and inferior alveolar nerves by stimulus motion across the skin was quantitatively studied. Moving stimuli, controlled for velocity, direction, and length of skin traversed, were provided by a servo-controlled motor that carried a brush across the(More)
1. Microelectrode recordings from 15 slowly adapting (SA) cutaneous mechanoreceptor afferents originating in hairy skin were obtained from the radial nerve in humans. 2. Controlled skin stretch was applied to the back of the hand that encompassed the physiological range of skin stretch during movements at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints. 3. Both SA(More)
1. The movement sensitivity of dorsal skin mechanoreceptors in the human hand was studied by the use of single afferent recording techniques. 2. Units were classified as slowly (SA) and fast adapting (FA) and further characterized by thresholds to vertical indentation and by receptive-field sizes. Whereas SA units were evenly distributed within the supply(More)
1. One hundred and twenty-four muscle afferents from the finger extensor muscles were recorded from the radial nerve in human subjects. 2. The afferents were provisionally classified as muscle spindle primary (78/124) and secondary afferents (25/124), and Golgi tendon organ afferents (21/124), on the basis of their response to 1) maximal twitch(More)
When humans proactively manipulate objects, the applied fingertip forces primarily depend on feedforward, predictive neural control mechanisms that depend on internal representations of the physical properties of the objects. Here we investigate whether predictions of object properties also control fingertip forces that subjects generate reactively. We(More)
1. One hundred and two single afferents from the finger extensor muscles of humans were studied with the microneurography technique. 2. The afferents were provisionally classified as primary muscle spindle afferents (62/102), secondary spindle afferents (22), and Golgi tendon organ afferents (18) on the basis of their responses to four tests: 1)(More)
Most manual tasks demand a delicate control of the wrist. Sensory information for this control, e.g. about the position and movement velocity of the hand, is assumed to be primarily provided by muscle spindle afferents. It is known that human muscle spindles in relaxed muscles behave as stretch receptors but it is unclear how they discharge during 'natural'(More)
1. We investigated the contribution of skin strain-related sensory inputs to movement perception and execution in five normal volunteers. The dorsal and palmar skin of the middle phalanx and the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint were manipulated to generate specific strain patterns in the proximal part of the index finger. To mask sensations directly(More)