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African Americans have higher rates of kidney disease than European Americans. Here, we show that, in African Americans, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and hypertension-attributed end-stage kidney disease (H-ESKD) are associated with two independent sequence variants in the APOL1 gene on chromosome 22 {FSGS odds ratio = 10.5 [95% confidence(More)
Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanolytic factor of human serum. Here we show that this protein contains a membrane pore-forming domain functionally similar to that of bacterial colicins, flanked by a membrane-addressing domain. In lipid bilayer membranes, apolipoprotein L-I formed anion channels. In Trypanosoma brucei, apolipoprotein L-I was targeted to the(More)
The African parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 97% of human sleeping sickness cases. T. b. gambiense resists the specific human innate immunity acting against several other tsetse-fly-transmitted trypanosome species such as T. b. brucei, the causative agent of nagana disease in cattle. Human immunity to some African trypanosomes is due to(More)
Despite the critical role of endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling during central nervous system (CNS) vascularization, how endothelial cells sense and respond to specific Wnt ligands and what aspects of the multistep process of intra-cerebral blood vessel morphogenesis are controlled by these angiogenic signals remain poorly understood. We addressed these(More)
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is lysed by apolipoprotein L-I, a component of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles that are also characterized by the presence of haptoglobin-related protein. We report that this process is mediated by a parasite glycoprotein receptor, which binds the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex with high affinity for(More)
Humans have developed a particular innate immunity system against African trypanosomes, and only two Trypanosoma brucei clones (T. b. gambiense, T. b. rhodesiense) can resist this defence and cause sleeping sickness. The main players of this immunity are the primate-specific apolipoprotein L-I (apoL1) and haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr). These proteins(More)
A hitherto unidentified N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutation affects dorsal root ganglia (DRG) formation in ouchless mutant zebrafish larvae. In contrast to previous findings assigning the ouchless phenotypes to downregulated sorbs3 transcript levels, this work re-attributes the phenotypes to an essential splice site mutation affecting adgra2(More)
Humans have innate immunity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei that is known to involve apolipoprotein L-I (APOL1). Recently, a case of T. evansi infection in a human was identified in India. We investigated whether the APOL1 pathway was involved in this occurrence. The serum of the infected patient was found to have no trypanolytic activity, and the finding(More)
Sterol 14alpha-demethylase (14DM, the CYP51 family of cytochrome P450) is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes. It serves as a major drug target for fungal diseases and can potentially become a target for treatment of human infections with protozoa. Here we present 1.9 A resolution crystal structures of 14DM from the protozoan pathogen(More)
Apolipoprotein L-I (apoL1) is a human-specific serum protein that kills Trypanosoma brucei through ionic pore formation in endosomal membranes of the parasite. The T. brucei subspecies rhodesiense and gambiense resist this lytic activity and can infect humans, causing sleeping sickness. In the case of T. b. rhodesiense, resistance to lysis involves(More)