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—Snow grain size is the snowpack parameter that most affects the microwave snow emission. The specific surface area (SSA) of snow is a metric that allows rapid and reproducible field measurements and that well represents the grain size. However, this metric cannot be used directly in microwave snow emission models (MSEMs). The aim of this paper is to(More)
[1] Satellite-passive microwave remote sensing has been extensively used to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) in northern regions. Although passive microwave sensors operate independent of solar illumination and the lower frequencies are independent of atmospheric conditions, the coarse spatial resolution introduces uncertainties to SWE retrievals due to(More)
Ice lens formation, which follows rain on snow events or melt-refreeze cycles in winter and spring, is likely to become more frequent as a result of increasing mean winter temperatures at high latitudes. These ice lenses significantly affect the microwave scattering and emission properties and, hence, snow brightness temperatures that are widely used to(More)
This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process which may lead to differences between this version and the Abstract Two-dimensional measurements of snowpack properties (stratigraphic layering, density, grain size and temperature) were(More)
This study focuses on the coupling of the Canadian land surface scheme (CLASS) and a radiative transfer model (RTM) to simulate brightness temperature (TB) in boreal forest environments. A parameterization of winter vegetation emission and transmission is proposed to improve the winter TB simulations. When compared to AMSR-E observations, RMSE values of 8K(More)
—Downwelling radiative fluxes from inhomogeneous environments are not easy to quantify from the total measured signal contribution. We propose the use of a Lambertian reflector to assess this issue. Using ray tracing to extrapolate the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of a surface with high reflectivity in the microwave spectrum, we(More)
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