Learn More
New protein parameters are reported for the all-atom empirical energy function in the CHARMM program. The parameter evaluation was based on a self-consistent approach designed to achieve a balance between the internal (bonding) and interaction (nonbonding) terms of the force field and among the solvent-solvent, solvent-solute, and solute-solute(More)
CHARMM (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) is a highly versatile and widely used molecular simulation program. It has been developed over the last three decades with a primary focus on molecules of biological interest, including proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecule ligands, as they occur in solution, crystals,(More)
We show that in the potassium channel KcsA, proton-dependent activation is followed by an inactivation process similar to C-type inactivation, and this process is suppressed by an E71A mutation in the pore helix. EPR spectroscopy demonstrates that the inner gate opens maximally at low pH regardless of the magnitude of the single-channel-open probability,(More)
Potassium channels are essential for maintaining a normal ionic balance across cell membranes. Central to this function is the ability of such channels to support transmembrane ion conduction at nearly diffusion-limited rates while discriminating for K+ over Na+ by more than a thousand-fold. This selectivity arises because the transfer of the K+ ion into(More)
BACKGROUND Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provides novel structural constraints from uniformly aligned samples. These orientational constraints orient specific atomic sites with respect to the magnetic field direction and the unique molecular axis of alignment. Solid-state NMR is uniquely and ideally suited for providing such(More)
Membrane depolarization causes voltage-gated ion channels to transition from a resting/closed conformation to an activated/open conformation. We used voltage-clamp fluorometry to measure protein motion at specific regions of the Shaker Kv channel. This enabled us to construct new structural models of the resting/closed and activated/open states based on the(More)
It is now well established that the voltage-sensing S4 segment in voltage-dependent ion channels undergoes a conformational change in response to varying membrane potential. However, the magnitude of the movement of S4 relative to the membrane and the rest of the protein remains controversial. Here, by using histidine scanning mutagenesis in the Shaker K(More)
A recently proposed model for voltage-dependent activation in K+ channels, largely influenced by the KvAP X-ray structure, suggests that S4 is located at the periphery of the channel and moves through the lipid bilayer upon depolarization. To investigate the physical distance between S4 and the pore domain in functional channels in a native membrane(More)
The transduction of transmembrane electric fields into protein motion has an essential role in the generation and propagation of cellular signals. Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) carry out these functions through reorientations of positive charges in the S4 helix. Here, we determined crystal structures of the Ciona intestinalis VSD (Ci-VSD) in putatively(More)