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New protein parameters are reported for the all-atom empirical energy function in the CHARMM program. The parameter evaluation was based on a self-consistent approach designed to achieve a balance between the internal (bonding) and interaction (nonbonding) terms of the force field and among the solvent-solvent, solvent-solute, and solute-solute(More)
CHARMM (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) is a highly versatile and widely used molecular simulation program. It has been developed over the last three decades with a primary focus on molecules of biological interest, including proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecule ligands, as they occur in solution, crystals,(More)
Potassium channels are essential for maintaining a normal ionic balance across cell membranes. Central to this function is the ability of such channels to support transmembrane ion conduction at nearly diffusion-limited rates while discriminating for K+ over Na+ by more than a thousand-fold. This selectivity arises because the transfer of the K+ ion into(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an atomic model of the KcsA K(+) channel embedded in an explicit dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) phospholipid bilayer solvated by a 150 mM KCl aqueous salt solution are performed and analyzed. The model includes the KcsA K(+) channel, based on the recent crystallographic structure of, Science. 280:69-77), 112(More)
We show that in the potassium channel KcsA, proton-dependent activation is followed by an inactivation process similar to C-type inactivation, and this process is suppressed by an E71A mutation in the pore helix. EPR spectroscopy demonstrates that the inner gate opens maximally at low pH regardless of the magnitude of the single-channel-open probability,(More)
BACKGROUND Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provides novel structural constraints from uniformly aligned samples. These orientational constraints orient specific atomic sites with respect to the magnetic field direction and the unique molecular axis of alignment. Solid-state NMR is uniquely and ideally suited for providing such(More)
A recently proposed model for voltage-dependent activation in K+ channels, largely influenced by the KvAP X-ray structure, suggests that S4 is located at the periphery of the channel and moves through the lipid bilayer upon depolarization. To investigate the physical distance between S4 and the pore domain in functional channels in a native membrane(More)
The rapid translocation of H+ along a chain of hydrogen-bonded water molecules, or proton wire, is thought to be an important mechanism for proton permeation through transmembrane channels. Computer simulations are used to study the properties of the proton wire formed by the single-file waters in the gramicidin A channel. The model includes the(More)
Voltage-gated ion channels are responsible for generating electrical impulses in nerves and other excitable cells. The fourth transmembrane helix (S4) in voltage-gated channels is the primary voltage-sensing unit that mediates the response to a changing membrane electric field. The molecular mechanism of voltage sensing, particularly with respect to the(More)