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Regeneration of appendages is frequent among invertebrates as well as some vertebrates. However, in mammals this has been largely relegated to digit tip regeneration, as found in mice and humans. The regenerated structures are formed from a mound of undifferentiated cells called a blastema, found just below the site of amputation. The blastema ultimately(More)
We have generated a null allele of the mouse Msx1 homeobox gene by insertion of an nlacZ reporter gene into its homeobox. The sensitivity of beta-galactosidase detection permitted us to reveal novel aspects of Msx1 gene expression in heterozygous embryos, in particular in ectoderm and mesoderm during gastrulation, and in migrating neural crest cells.(More)
In myoblast cell cultures, the Msx1 protein is able to repress myogenesis and maintain cells in an undifferentiated and proliferative state. However, there has been no evidence that Msx1 is expressed in muscle or its precursors in vivo. Using mice with the nlacZ gene integrated into the Msx1 locus, we show that the reporter gene is expressed in the lateral(More)
Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1(lacZ) is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and pericytes, and that Msx2(lacZ) is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs). The mouse retina(More)
The dorsal midline of the neural tube has recently emerged as a major signaling center for dorsoventral patterning. Msx genes are expressed at the dorsal midline, although their function at this site remains unknown. Using Msx1(nlacZ) mutant mice, we show that the normal expression domain of Msx1 is interrupted in the pretectum of mutant embryos.(More)
We have analyzed the expression of the Msx1 gene in the developing mouse brain and examined the brain phenotype in homozygotes. Msx1 is expressed in every cerebral vesicle throughout development, particularly in neuroepithelia, such as those of the fimbria and the medulla. Timing analysis suggests that Msx1(nLacZ) cells delaminate and migrate radially from(More)
The homeobox-containing genes Msx1 and Msx2 are highly expressed in the limb field from the earliest stages of limb formation and, subsequently, in both the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme. However, mice homozygous for a null mutation in either Msx1 or Msx2 do not display abnormalities in limb development. By contrast, Msx1; Msx2 double(More)
The genetic mechanisms that control the establishment of early polarities and their link with embryonic axis specification and patterning seem to substantially diverge across vertebrates. In amphibians and teleosts, the establishment of an early dorso-ventral polarity determines both the site of axis formation and its rostro-caudal orientation. In contrast,(More)
Bidirectional transcription, leading to the expression of an antisense (AS) RNA partially complementary to the protein coding sense (S) RNA, is an emerging subject in mammals and has been associated with various processes such as RNA interference, imprinting and transcription inhibition. Homeobox genes do not escape this bidirectional transcription, raising(More)
We have analyzed Msx1 expression in the mature mouse brain using in situ hybridization and beta-galactosidase activity in Msx1(nLacZ) mice. The study revealed that Msx1 is strongly expressed in the circumventricular organs, such as the subcommissural organ and choroid plexus, and in some epithelia, such as that of the dorsal, but not the ventral part of the(More)