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We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies of the risk of HIV-1 transmission per heterosexual contact. 43 publications comprising 25 different study populations were identified. Pooled female-to-male (0.04% per act [95% CI 0.01-0.14]) and male-to-female (0.08% per act [95% CI 0.06-0.11]) transmission estimates in high-income(More)
In a microbicide safety and effectiveness trial (HPTN 035) in Malawi, 585 women completed the same questionnaire through a face-to-face interview (FTFI) and an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Concordance between FTFI and ACASI responses ranged from 72.0 % for frequency of sex in the past week to 95.2 % for anal intercourse (AI) in the past 3(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the safety and effectiveness of BufferGel and 0.5% PRO2000 microbicide gels for the prevention of male-to-female HIV transmission. DESIGN Phase II/IIb, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with three double-blinded gel arms and an open-label no gel arm. METHODS Study participants from Malawi, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine temporal trends in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort Study, 1997 through 2003. METHODS The Omega Cohort Study was a longitudinal study of HIV-negative MSM aged 16 years or older and living in Montreal. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires and(More)
In this paper, new measures of centrality that summarize the contact structure of social networks are proposed. The new measures use a cumulative nomination scheme based on the preliminary assumption that more central individuals will be nominated more often. Some of these measures are defined to characterize networks of different sizes and, by extension,(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort Study in Montreal, 1996-2003. METHODS Longitudinal study of 1587 MSM seronegative at baseline with > or =1 six-month follow-up visit. Multivariate Cox regression with time-dependent(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate a sexual and STD/AIDS prevention program tailored for adolescents with social adaptation difficulties in juvenile rehabilitation facilities. The impact of the intervention on the psychosocial determinants of condom use were assessed, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design. A total of 296 adolescents(More)
BACKGROUND Nonoxynol-9 (rINN, nonoxinol-9) is an over-the-counter spermicide that has in-vitro anti-HIV-1 activity. Results of studies of its effectiveness in prevention of HIV-1 infection in women have been inconclusive. We aimed to assess effectiveness of this vaginal gel. METHODS We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded, phase 2/3 trial(More)
BACKGROUND A landmark randomised trial of male circumcision (MC) in Orange Farm, South Africa recently showed a large and significant reduction in risk of HIV infection, reporting MC effectiveness of 61% (95% CI: 34%-77%). Additionally, two further randomised trials of MC in Kisumu, Kenya and Rakai, Uganda were recently stopped early to report 53% and 48%(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish the highest practical dose and frequency (HPDF) of 0.3% or 1% tenofovir vaginal gel applied once or twice daily by sexually abstinent HIV-uninfected women, and to evaluate the safety, tolerability and systemic pharmacokinetics of the HPDF in abstinent and sexually active HIV-negative and HIV-infected women. METHODS Eighty-four(More)