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BACKGROUND Nonoxynol-9 (rINN, nonoxinol-9) is an over-the-counter spermicide that has in-vitro anti-HIV-1 activity. Results of studies of its effectiveness in prevention of HIV-1 infection in women have been inconclusive. We aimed to assess effectiveness of this vaginal gel. METHODS We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded, phase 2/3 trial(More)
In this paper, new measures of centrality that summarize the contact structure of social networks are proposed. The new measures use a cumulative nomination scheme based on the preliminary assumption that more central individuals will be nominated more often. Some of these measures are defined to characterize networks of different sizes and, by extension,(More)
BACKGROUND A landmark randomised trial of male circumcision (MC) in Orange Farm, South Africa recently showed a large and significant reduction in risk of HIV infection, reporting MC effectiveness of 61% (95% CI: 34%-77%). Additionally, two further randomised trials of MC in Kisumu, Kenya and Rakai, Uganda were recently stopped early to report 53% and 48%(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate, in a multicenter study, the diagnostic performance of a new molecular test uPM3 for detecting prostate cancer cells in urine because of the need for better methods to identify patients at risk of prostate cancer. METHODS The uPM3 test is a nucleic acid amplification assay detecting simultaneously in the urine the relative(More)
The rigorous evaluation of the impact of combination HIV prevention packages at the population level will be critical for the future of HIV prevention. In this review, we discuss important considerations for the design and interpretation of cluster randomized controlled trials (C-RCTs) of combination prevention interventions. We focus on three large C-RCTs(More)
BACKGROUND To date different vaginal gel microbicides have been evaluated in phase 2b/3 trials, but none have demonstrated effectiveness for preventing HIV infection. Failure to demonstrate effectiveness however does not necessarily indicate that a product is truly inefficacious, as several sources of efficacy dilution may compromise our ability to identify(More)
It is frequently of interest to estimate the intervention effect that adjusts for post-randomization variables in clinical trials. In the recently completed HPTN 035 trial, there is differential condom use between the three microbicide gel arms and the No Gel control arm, so that intention to treat (ITT) analyses only assess the net treatment effect that(More)
BACKGROUND The majority of new HIV infections are acquired through heterosexual transmission. There is urgent need for prevention methods to compliment behavior change and condom use. Topical microbicide represent a potential strategy for reduction of HIV transmission in women. METHODS Monthly Colposcopy evaluations were performed during pelvic(More)