Benoît Ladoux

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Using an original microfabrication-based technique, we experimentally study situations in which a virgin surface is presented to a confluent epithelium with no damage made to the cells. Although inspired by wound-healing experiments, the situation is markedly different from classical scratch wounding because it focuses on the influence of the free surface(More)
We measure dynamic traction forces exerted by epithelial cells on a substrate. The force sensor is a high-density array of elastomeric microfabricated pillars that support the cells. Traction forces induced by cell migration are deduced from the measurement of the bending of these pillars and are correlated with actin localization by fluorescence(More)
Nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMM-IIA) is involved in the formation of focal adhesions and neurite retraction. However, the role of NMM-IIA in these functions remains largely unknown. Using RNA interference as a tool to decrease NMM-IIA expression, we have found that NMM-IIA is the major myosin involved in traction force generation and retrograde F-actin flow in(More)
The leading front of a collectively migrating epithelium often destabilizes into multicellular migration fingers where a cell initially similar to the others becomes a leader cell while its neighbours do not alter. The determinants of these leader cells include mechanical and biochemical cues, often under the control of small GTPases. However, an accurate(More)
The traction forces developed by cells depend strongly on the substrate rigidity. In this letter, we characterize quantitatively this effect on MDCK epithelial cells by using a microfabricated force sensor consisting in a high-density array of soft pillars whose stiffness can be tailored by changing their height and radius to obtain a rigidity range from 2(More)
Maintaining a physical connection across cytoplasm is crucial for many biological processes such as matrix force generation, cell motility, cell shape and tissue development. However, in the absence of stress fibers, the coherent structure that transmits force across the cytoplasm is not understood. We find that nonmuscle myosin-II (NMII) contraction of(More)
Collective behavior refers to the emergence of complex migration patterns over scales larger than those of the individual elements constituting a system. It plays a pivotal role in biological systems in regulating various processes such as gastrulation, morphogenesis and tissue organization. Here, by combining experimental approaches and numerical modeling,(More)
Traction forces between adhesive cells play an important role in a number of collective cell processes. Intercellular contacts, in particular cadherin-based intercellular junctions, are the major means of transmitting force within tissues. We investigated the effect of cellular tension on the formation of cadherin-cadherin contacts by spreading cells on(More)
Force sensing at cadherin-mediated adhesions is critical for their proper function. α-Catenin, which links cadherins to actomyosin, has a crucial role in this mechanosensing process. It has been hypothesized that force promotes vinculin binding, although this has never been demonstrated. X-ray structure further suggests that α-catenin adopts a stable(More)
The role of geometrical confinement on collective cell migration has been recognized but has not been elucidated yet. Here, we show that the geometrical properties of the environment regulate the formation of collective cell migration patterns through cell-cell interactions. Using microfabrication techniques to allow epithelial cell sheets to migrate into(More)