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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that induces in humans a disease characterized by fever, rash, and pain in muscles and joints. The recent emergence or reemergence of CHIKV in the Indian Ocean Islands and India has stressed the need to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Previous CHIKV disease models have used young(More)
Cellular immune responses make an important contribution to both the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and disease progression. We used a pathogenic model of SIVmac251 infection of cynomolgus macaques to longitudinally evaluate cellular immune responses in association with various rates of disease progression. We found an inverse(More)
The early immune response fails to prevent the establishment of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but may influence viremia during primary infection, thereby possibly affecting long-term disease progression. CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells may contribute to HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pathogenesis by suppressing efficient(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are antigen-presenting cells that develop into type-I interferon (IFN-I)-producing cells in response to pathogens. Their role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis needs to be understood. We analyzed their dynamics in relation to innate and adaptive immunity very early during the acute phase of simian(More)
Strategies to improve vaccine efficacy are still required, especially in the case of chronic infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines; however, low immunological efficacy has been demonstrated in many experiments involving large animals and in clinical trials. To improve the(More)
Prolonged, altered hematopoietic reconstitution is commonly observed in patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning and bone marrow and/or mobilized peripheral blood-derived stem cell transplantation. We studied the reconstitution of myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous CD34+ bone marrow cells following gamma(More)
BACKGROUND Primary HIV-infected patients display severe and irreversible damage to different blood B-cell subsets which is not restored by highly efficient anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Because longitudinal investigations of primary HIV-infection is limited by the availability of lymphoid organs, we studied the tissue-specific B-cell dysfunctions in(More)
BACKGROUND Immunization protocols involving priming with DNA and boosting with recombinant live virus vectors such as recombinant modified Vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) are considered as vaccine candidates against HIV. Such protocols improve the outcome of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) pathogenic challenge in Rhesus monkeys. OBJECTIVES To(More)
Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and(More)
Cross-sectional studies have shown that the capacity of CD8+ cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac-infected macaques to suppress the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in vitro depends on the clinical stage of disease, but little is known about changes in this(More)