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Splicing regulates gene expression and contributes to proteomic diversity in higher eukaryotes. However, in yeast only 283 of the 6000 genes contain introns and their impact on cell function is not clear. To assess the contribution of introns to cell function, we initiated large-scale intron deletions in yeast with the ultimate goal of creating an(More)
In budding yeast, the most abundantly spliced pre-mRNAs encode ribosomal proteins (RPs). To investigate the contribution of splicing to ribosome production and function, we systematically eliminated introns from all RP genes to evaluate their impact on RNA expression, pre-rRNA processing, cell growth, and response to stress. The majority of introns were(More)
hnRNP A/B proteins modulate the alternative splicing of several mammalian and viral pre-mRNAs, and are typically viewed as proteins that enforce the activity of splicing silencers. Here we show that intronic hnRNP A/B-binding sites (ABS) can stimulate the in vitro splicing of pre-mRNAs containing artificially enlarged introns. Stimulation of in vitro(More)
Two different experimental approaches have provided evidence that both U2 and U1 snRNPs function in pre-mRNA splicing. When the U2 snRNPs in a nuclear extract are selectively degraded using ribonuclease H and either of two deoxyoligonucleotides complementary to U2 RNA, splicing activity is abolished. Mixing an extract in which U2 has been degraded with one(More)
Alternative splicing is a key mechanism regulating gene expression, and it is often used to produce antagonistic activities particularly in apoptotic genes. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP) proteins form a family of RNA-binding proteins that coat nascent pre-mRNAs. Many but not all major hnRNP proteins have been shown to participate in(More)
The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises antiretroviral therapy efficacy and limits therapeutic options. Therefore, it is an ongoing task to identify new targets for antiretroviral therapy and to develop new drugs. Here, we show that an indole derivative (IDC16) that interferes with exonic splicing enhancer activity of the SR protein(More)
The alternative splicing of Bcl-x generates the proapoptotic Bcl-x(S) protein and the antiapoptotic isoform Bcl-x(L). Bcl-x splicing is coupled to signal transduction, since ceramide, hormones, and growth factors alter the ratio of the Bcl-x isoforms in different cell lines. Here we report that the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and apoptotic inducer(More)
Control of RNA processing plays a major role in HIV-1 gene expression. To explore the role of several hnRNP proteins in this process, we carried out a siRNA screen to examine the effect of depletion of hnRNPs A1, A2, D, H, I and K on HIV-1 gene expression. While loss of hnRNPs H, I or K had little effect, depletion of A1 and A2 increased expression of viral(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of two atypical antipsychotic drugs, olanzapine and risperidone, in schizophrenic patients with post-psychotic depression. RESULTS A clinically significant decrease of MADRS scores occurred in patients treated with both drugs for 8 weeks. CONCLUSION Atypical antipsychotic drugs may be particularly appropriate when(More)