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The presence and expression of killer inhibitory receptor (KIR) and CD94:NKG2 genes from 68 donors were analyzed using molecular typing techniques. The genes encoding CD94:NKG2 receptors were present in each person, but KIR gene possession varied. Most individuals expressed inhibitory KIR for the three well-defined HLA-B and -C ligands, but noninhibitory(More)
That NK cell receptors engage fast-evolving MHC class I ligands suggests that they, too, evolve rapidly. To test this hypothesis, the structure and class I specificity of chimpanzee KIR and CD94:NKG2 receptors were determined and compared to their human counterparts. The KIR families are divergent, with only three KIR conserved between chimpanzees and(More)
PURPOSE We generated a humanized antibody, HuLuc63, which specifically targets CS1 (CCND3 subset 1, CRACC, and SLAMF7), a cell surface glycoprotein not previously associated with multiple myeloma. To explore the therapeutic potential of HuLuc63 in multiple myeloma, we examined in detail the expression profile of CS1, the binding properties of HuLuc63 to(More)
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15--20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II beta-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes are highly polymorphic in both species and diploid in(More)
To assess polymorphism and variation in human and chimpanzee NK complex genes, we determined the coding-region sequences for CD94 and NKG2A, C, D, E, and F from several human (Homo sapiens) donors and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). CD94 is highly conserved, while the NKG2 genes exhibit some polymorphism. For all the genes, alternative mRNA splicing(More)
Sequence-based typing of a breeding population (G1) consisting of 84 Atlantic salmon individuals revealed the presence of 7 Sasa-DAA and 7 Sasa-DAB expressed alleles. Subsequent typing of 1,182 individuals belonging to 33 families showed that Sasa-DAA and Sasa-DAB segregate as haplotypes. In total seven unique haplotypes were established, with frequencies(More)
For mammals beta2-microglobulin (beta2m), the light chain of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, is invariant (or highly conserved) and is encoded by a single gene unlinked to the MHC. We find that beta2m of a salmonid fish, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), does not conform to the mammalian paradigm. Ten of 12 randomly selected(More)
The amphibian Xenopus laevis is the most primitive vertebrate in which the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been defined at the biochemical, functional, and molecular genetic levels. We previously described the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding X. laevis MHC class II beta chains. In the present study, genomic clones encoding(More)
Here we describe two rainbow trout major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes characterized from lambda phage genomic clones prepared from a single fish. Clone GC71 contains all exons except a leader peptide-encoding exon. An open reading frame is maintained, and thus the gene MhcOnmy-U71 could be expressed in this individual. The class I gene(More)
Chemokines are small inducible proteins that direct the migration of leukocytes. While chemokines are well characterised in mammals, they have yet to be identified in fish. We have isolated a cDNA clone from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which encodes a protein (CK-1) having structural features typical of chemokines. Amino-acid residues that define(More)