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In this article I review the history of research on the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) protein with emphasis on my contributions. The FMO protein, which transfers energy from the chlorosome to the reaction center in green sulfur bacteria, was discovered in 1962 and shown to contain bacteriochlorophyll a. From the absorption and circular dichroism spectra, it(More)
The time-of-flight neutron Laue technique has been used to determine the location of hydrogen atoms in the enzyme d-xylose isomerase (XI). The neutron structure of crystalline XI with bound product, d-xylulose, shows, unexpectedly, that O5 of d-xylulose is not protonated but is hydrogen-bonded to doubly protonated His54. Also, Lys289, which is neutral in(More)
Time-of-flight neutron diffraction has been used to locate hydrogen atoms that define the ionization states of amino acids in crystals of D-xylose isomerase. This enzyme, from Streptomyces rubiginosus, is one of the largest enzymes studied to date at high resolution (1.8 A) by this method. We have determined the position and orientation of a metal ion-bound(More)
The relative positions of the centers of mass of the 21 proteins of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Escherichia coli have been determined by triangulation using neutron scattering data. The resulting map of the quaternary structure of the small ribosomal subunit is presented, and comparisons are made with structural data from other sources.
Water in close proximity to the protein surface is fundamental to protein folding, stability, recognition and activity. Protein structures studied by diffraction methods show ordered water molecules around some charged, polar, and non-polar (hydrophobic) amino acids, although the later are only observed when they are at the interface between symmetry(More)
As the first International Tables volume devoted to the crystallography of large biological molecules, Volume F is intended to complement existing volumes of International Tables for Crystallography. A background history of the subject is followed by a concise introduction to the basic theory of X-ray diffraction and other requirements for the practice of(More)
We have described here a direct method for the solution of the phase problem for lamellar neutron diffraction from hydrated oriented multilayers of model membranes. As a result, the neutron-scattering profiles of such model membranes can be uniquely determined. We note that such methods can easily be extended to cases in which the thickness of the water(More)