Benjamin Toh

Learn More
In order to metastasize, cancer cells need to acquire a motile phenotype. Previously, development of this phenotype was thought to rely on the acquisition of selected, random mutations and thus would occur late in cancer progression. However, recent studies show that cancer cells disseminate early, implying the existence of a different, faster route to the(More)
Although metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death, it is not clear why some patients with localized cancer develop metastatic disease after complete resection of their primary tumor. Such relapses have been attributed to tumor cells that disseminate early and remain dormant for prolonged periods of time; however, little is known about the(More)
AIMS To study the effect of zinc on the biodegradation of phenanthrene by the microbial biomass in soil. METHODS AND RESULTS Uncontaminated soil was amended with zinc and phenanthrene as single or co-contaminants, and microbial metabolic activity was measured using an intracellular dehydrogenase enzyme bioassay over 37 days. Contaminants were amended at(More)
Cancer immunotherapies have shown considerable promise in pre-clinical studies, but the potency of these interventions has often proved disappointing in vivo. This is in part due to tumor infiltration by myeloid cells, which are usually associated with less favorable clinical outcomes. In the past decade, several distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating(More)
Tumor-infiltrating immune cells have long been thought to affect tumor growth. In recent years, large retrospective studies have shown that the nature and polarization of the immune cells found within the tumor microenvironment impact not only the growth of the primary tumor, but also disease progression and patient survival. This has triggered considerable(More)
The immune system has multiple, complex, and sometimes opposing roles during cancer progression. While immune-compromised individuals have a higher incidence of cancers, inflammation is also associated with increased risk of disease progression. It is becoming apparent that simple measures of immune responses in the blood are of limited use in cancer.(More)
Most studies aimed at understanding the link between inflammation and cancer progression have focused on macrophages. In a recent study published in PLoS Biology, Toh B et al (2011) Mesenchymal transition and dissemination of cancer cells is driven by myeloid-derived suppressor cells infiltrating the primary tumorPLoS Biol9 e1001162, we show that a subset(More)
Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of death in cancer patients, and cutaneous melanoma is one of the most highly metastatic cancers. While early stage melanomas are almost always curable, despite new and promising treatments (Flaherty et al., 2010; Hodi et al., 2010), advanced unresectable melanomas (Stage III and IV) have a much worse prognosis(More)
Metastasis is the multi-step process by which cancer cells spread from the primary tumor site to other parts of the body, and is responsible for around 90% of cancer deaths. To be successful, the process requires the individual cancer cell to acquire a host of new characteristics and abilities that are needed in order to overcome the considerable barriers(More)
  • 1