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Mutations in the acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) gene, responsible for the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher's disease (GD), are the strongest genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) known to date. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from subjects with GD and PD harbouring GBA1 mutations, and differentiate them into midbrain(More)
The LRRK2 mutation G2019S is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). To better understand the link between mutant LRRK2 and PD pathology, we derived induced pluripotent stem cells from PD patients harboring LRRK2 G2019S and then specifically corrected the mutant LRRK2 allele. We demonstrate that gene correction resulted in phenotypic(More)
Phenotypic drug discovery requires billions of cells for high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns. Because up to several million different small molecules will be tested in a single HTS campaign, even small variability within the cell populations for screening could easily invalidate an entire campaign. Neurodegenerative assays are particularly challenging(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) without (non-demented, PDND) and with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are subsumed under the umbrella term Lewy body disorders (LBD). The main component of the underlying pathologic substrate, i.e. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, is misfolded alpha-synuclein (Asyn), and--in particular in demented LBD(More)
A large proportion of demented Lewy body disease patients have Alzheimer's disease (AD)- like pathology, in particular amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaques. Cystatin C (CysC) is a carrier of soluble Abeta (42) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and reduces Abeta plaque formation. The CST3 BB genotype leads to a reduced secretion of the protein in vitro and increases(More)
Activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is frequently observed in animal and human tumors. In our study, we analyzed B-raf codon 637 (formerly 624) and Ha-ras codon 61 mutations in liver tumors from C3H, B6C3F1 and C56BL mice which differ considerably with regard to their susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis. In total, 73% (102/140) of tumors induced by(More)
Designing and developing truly tumor-specific prodrugs remains a challenge in the field of cancer chemotherapy. Active targeting strategies, on the one hand, aim at exploiting membrane-associated receptors or antigens for drug delivery; on the other hand, the enhanced vascular permeability and retention of macromolecules in tumor tissue substantiates the(More)
Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved, presynaptic vesicular phosphoprotein. Here, we ask where and how synapsin functions in associative behavioral plasticity. Upon loss or reduction of synapsin in a deletion mutant or via RNAi, respectively, Drosophila larvae are impaired in odor-sugar associative learning. Acute global expression of synapsin and local(More)
Most disease-modifying therapeutic approaches in Alzheimer's disease (AD) aim to reduce the accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides as a hallmark of AD pathogenesis. Here we report the in vitro basis for a potential autologous stem cell-based strategy for widespread delivery of enzymatic activities against Abeta formation in the brain. We(More)
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology, influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, the loci so far identified for sarcoidosis explain only a part of its assumed heritability. To identify further susceptibility loci, we performed a genome-wide association analysis using the Affymetrix 6.0 Human GeneChip followed by(More)