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Studies of form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in animal models have shown that postnatal ocular growth is regulated by the quality of patterned images on the retina. One of the major challenges in myopia research is to identify the biochemical mechanisms which translate retinal visual responses into signals that regulate scleral growth. Dopamine (DA) has been(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone of the enteroinsular axis. Recent experimental evidence in animals and healthy subjects suggests that GLP-1 has a role in controlling appetite and energy intake in humans. We have therefore examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 12 patients with diabetes type 2(More)
Retinal vascular leakage is an early pathological feature in diabetic retinopathy and can lead to macular oedema and loss of vision. Previously we have shown that plasminogen kringle 5 (K5), an angiogenic inhibitor, inhibits retinal neovascularisation in the rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect(More)
Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in the chick is a popular model for studying the postnatal regulation of ocular growth. Using this model, we have shown previously that dopamine and FGF-2 can counteract the effects of form-deprivation, thereby producing emmetropia. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the emmetropizing effects of flickering(More)
Occlusion of the eye (form deprivation) during post-natal development leads to ocular enlargement and myopia. The chick model of form deprivation myopia (FDM) has been used to identify candidate factors that underly the control of ocular growth. The major biochemical change associated with eye enlargement is an increase in scleral cartilage proteoglycan(More)
Recently, a universal, simple, and fail-safe mechanism has been proposed by which cerebral blood flow (CBF) might be coupled to oxygen metabolism during neuronal activation without the need for any tissue-based mechanism. According to this concept, vasodilation occurs by local erythrocytic release of nitric oxide or ATP wherever and whenever hemoglobin is(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a trophic factor for noradrenergic (NE) neurons of the pontine nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Decreased function of the LC-NE neurons has been found during normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously shown that GDNF participates in the differentiation of LC-NE neurons during(More)
The actions of dopamine are mediated by 5 or more receptor subtypes, any of which may be coupled by G-proteins to adenylate cyclase (D1-family: stimulatory, D2-family: inhibitory or no action). Postnatal ocular growth in the chick is a vision-dependent mechanism which involves D2-type receptors in either the retina or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).(More)
In this study, the possible role of the retinal enkephalin system in form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in the chick eye was investigated. Daily intravitreal injection of the nonspecific opiate antagonist naloxone blocked development of FDM in a dose-dependent manner, while injection of the opiate agonist morphine had no effect at any dose tested. The ED50 for(More)
Exposure to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to induce neurodegeneration in newborn rats. However, in clinical practice the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives cannot always be avoided. The present study investigated the effect of the indirect cholinergic agonist physostigmine on neurotrophin(More)