Benjamin Ralph

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Leishmania parasites are able to secure their survival and propagation within their host by altering signalling pathways involved in the ability of macrophages to kill pathogens or to engage adaptive immune system. An important step in this immune evasion process is the activation of host protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 by Leishmania. SHP-1 has been(More)
We previously reported that SHP-1 regulates IRAK-1 activity by binding to an ITIM-like motif found within its kinase domain, which we named kinase tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (KTIM). Herein, we further investigated the presence, number, location, and evolutionary time of emergence of potential KTIMs in many cytosolic kinases, all known to play important(More)
UNLABELLED The mold Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. Recently, galactosaminogalactan (GAG), an exopolysaccharide composed of galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), was identified as a virulence factor required for biofilm formation. The molecular mechanisms underlying GAG biosynthesis and GAG-mediated(More)
A thermodynamic feasibility study was applied as a means of predicting suitable energy-yielding substrates for growth of sulphate-reducing microorganisms. The average free energy release per electron pair for a substrate-sulphate oxidoreduction may be more or less than the energy requirement for ATP synthesis from ADP and Pi. Substrates were divided into(More)
Of the over 250 Aspergillus species, Aspergillus fumigatus accounts for up to 80% of invasive human infections. A. fumigatus produces galactosaminogalactan (GAG), an exopolysaccharide composed of galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) that mediates adherence and is required for full virulence. Less pathogenic Aspergillus species were found to produce(More)
Background Impaired delivery of antifungals to hyphae within necrotic lesions is thought to contribute to therapeutic failure in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). We hypothesized that transfusion of leukocytes loaded ex vivo with the lipophilic antifungal posaconazole could improve delivery of antifungals to the sites of established infection and(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that invades pulmonary epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells by inducing its own endocytosis, but the mechanism by which this process occurs is poorly understood. Here, we show that the thaumatin-like protein CalA is expressed on the surface of the A. fumigatus cell wall, where it mediates(More)