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Reproductive behavior in Drosophila has both stereotyped and plastic components that are driven by age- and sex-specific chemical cues. Males who unsuccessfully court virgin females subsequently avoid females that are of the same age as the trainer. In contrast, males trained with mature mated females associate volatile appetitive and aversive pheromonal(More)
—Staircase codes, a new class of forward-error-correction (FEC) codes suitable for high-speed optical communications , are introduced. An ITU-T G.709-compatible staircase code with rate R = 239/255 is proposed, and FPGA-based simulation results are presented, exhibiting a net coding gain (NCG) of 9.41 dB at an output error rate of 10 −15 , an improvement of(More)
—The optimal performance-complexity tradeoff for error-correcting codes at rates strictly below the Shannon limit is a central question in coding theory. This paper proposes a numerical approach for the minimization of decoding complexity for long-block-length irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The proposed design methodology is applicable to(More)
Australian myobatrachid frogs of the genus Pseudophryne have only two classes of alkaloids in skin extracts, pseudophrynamines (PSs) and pumiliotoxins (PTXs). The former are unique to such Australian frogs, while the PTXs occur worldwide in all other genera of frogs/toads that contain lipophilic alkaloids. The major alkaloid of wild-caught frogs from one(More)
BACKGROUND The social life of animals depends on communication between individuals. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrate that various behaviors are influenced by social interactions. For example, courtship is a social interaction mediated by pheromonal signaling that occurs more frequently during certain times of the day than others. In(More)
We examine the inbreeding load for adult life span and mortality rates of two seed beetle species, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus. Inbreeding load differs substantially between males and females in both study populations of C. maculatus--life span of inbred females was 9-13% shorter than the life span of outbred females, whereas the life span(More)
In many species, older males are often preferred mates because they carry 'good' genes that account for their viability. How females discern a male's age is a matter of question. However, for animals that rely heavily on chemical communication there is some indication that an animal's age can be determined by its scent. To investigate whether there are(More)
The complexity-rate tradeoff for error-correcting codes below the Shannon limit is a central question in coding theory. This paper makes progress in this area by presenting a joint numerical optimization of rate and decoding complexity for low-density parity-check codes. The focus of this paper is on the binary symmetric channel and on a class of decoding(More)
Uncertainty analysis is an important component of dietary exposure assessments in order to understand correctly the strength and limits of its results. Often, standard screening procedures are applied in a first step which results in conservative estimates. If through those screening procedures a potential exceedance of health-based guidance values is(More)
The preference of two allopatric populations of Culex annulirostris mosquitoes in South Australia (SA) for guinea pigs and chickens was investigated using host-baited traps in the field and in a flight tunnel for laboratory assays. Mosquitoes from the Riverland of SA preferred guinea pigs, those from northeast SA preferred chickens. In the field, 2184 Cx.(More)