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Embedded systems increasingly use software-driven low-power microprocessors for security-critical settings, surfacing a need for tools that can audit the security of the software (often called firmware) running on such devices. Despite the fact that firmware programs are often written in C, existing source-code analysis tools do not work well for this(More)
We experimentally investigate the security of several smartphone point-of-sale (POS) systems that consist of a software application combined with an audio-jack magnetic stripe reader (AMSR). The latter is a small hardware dongle that reads magnetic stripes on payment cards, (sometimes) encrypts the sensitive card data, and transmits the result to the(More)
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