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The spread of HIV between immune cells is greatly enhanced by cell-cell adhesions called virological synapses, although the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. With use of an infectious, fluorescent clone of HIV, we tracked the movement of Gag in live CD4 T cells and captured the direct translocation of HIV across the virological synapse. Quantitative,(More)
The Src homology 2 domain–containing inositol 5 Ј-phosphatase (SHIP) is recruited to immu-noreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)–containing proteins, thereby suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)–dependent pathways. The role of SHIP in phago-cytosis, a PI 3-kinase–dependent pathway, is unknown. Overexpression of SHIP in(More)
Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is a CD4-related transmembrane protein expressed by regulatory T cells that binds MHC II on APCs. It is shown in this study that during Treg:DC interactions, LAG-3 engagement with MHC class II inhibits DC activation. MHC II cross-linking by agonistic Abs induces an ITAM-mediated inhibitory signaling pathway, involving(More)
The mammalian ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and A7 (ABCA1 and -A7) show sequence similarity to CED-7, a Caenorhabditis elegans gene that mediates the clearance of apoptotic cells. Using RNA interference or gene targeting, we show that knock down of macrophage ABCA7 but not -A1 results in defective engulfment of apoptotic cells. In response to(More)
Agents that activate cannabinoid receptor pathways have been tested as treatments for cachexia, nausea or neuropathic pain in HIV-1/AIDS patients. The cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)R and CB(2)R) and the HIV-1 co-receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, all signal via Gαi-coupled pathways. We hypothesized that drugs targeting cannabinoid receptors modulate chemokine(More)
Ingestion of opsonized pathogens by professional phagocytes results in the generation and release of microbicidal products that are essential for normal host defense. Because these products can result in significant tissue injury, phagocytosis must be regulated to limit damage to the host while allowing for optimal clearance and destruction of opsonized(More)
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