In-canopy turbulence is a required input to study pollutant cycling and chemistry within plant canopies and to link concentrations and sources. Despite the importance of grasslands worldwide, most previous work has focused on forests and crops. Here, turbulence parameters in a mature agricultural grassland canopy were measured with 5 a combination of a… (More)
The exchange of Ammonia (NH 3) between grassland and the atmosphere was determined using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements. The use of REA is of special interest for NH 3 , since the determination of fluxes at one height permits multiple systems to be deployed to quantify vertical flux divergence (either due to effects of chemical production or… (More)
Biogeosciences Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Biogeosciences (BG). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in BG if available. Abstract Ammonia concentration and fluxes were measured above a growing triticale field for two months during May and June 2010 at the NitroEurope crop site in Grignon (Fr-Gri) near… (More)
Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere… (More)
Agricultural livestock represents the main source of ammonia (NH 3) in Europe. In recent years, reduction policies have been applied to reduce NH 3 emissions. In order to estimate the impacts of these policies, robust estimates of the emissions from the main sources, i.e. livestock farms are needed. In this paper, the NH 3 emissions were estimated from a… (More)
Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to net greenhouse gas balance of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in a systemic approach , as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we… (More)
The exchange of NH 3 between grassland and the atmosphere was determined using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements. The use of REA is of special interest for NH 3 , since the determination of fluxes at one height permits multiple systems to be deployed to quantify vertical flux divergence (either due to effects of chemical 5 production or… (More)
The authors propose a test consisting in performing injections of Renovaine, a very strong anaesthetic drug, in the external ear duct in order to reduce momentarily severe and decompensated tinnitus. They discuss the usefulness of this test and develop two concepts to explain its action. They make a pragmatic approach of the tinnitus etiopathogeny.