Benjamin Lemke

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This paper reports on a novel CMOS-based silicon microprobe for high-density intracortical stress mapping. In contrast to existing systems, square p-type field effect transistors (FET) with four source/drain contacts (piezo-FETs) are integrated on the slender, needle-like probe shaft. In total, 345 stress sensors are arranged in five columns (x/y-pitch of(More)
This paper reports the development and characterization of a novel piezoresistive CMOS stress sensor enabling the measurement of the out-of-plane shear stress components &#x03B4;<inf>xz</inf> and &#x03B4;<inf>yz</inf> by exploiting the shear piezoresistive effect, i.e. the pseudo-Hall effect. The sensing structures are fabricated using a commercial CMOS(More)
This paper presents a novel piezoresistive sensor detecting a temperature compensated sum of the three mechanical normal stress components including the Out-of-plane stress ¿<inf>zz</inf>. The sensor is based on CMOS-compatible diffusions designed to exploit vertical currents. We show that the temperature compensated stress sum can be extracted via two(More)
This paper reports on the development and characterization of a novel stress and temperature mapping chip fabricated in a standard 0.6 &#x00B5;m CMOS process. The sensing array consists of 10&#x00D7;10 square unit cells enabling the simultaneous measurement of the absolute temperature as well as five independent mechanical stress components in a temperature(More)
This paper presents high-density arrays of 7 &#x00D7; 7 n- and p-type piezoresistive field effect transistor (piezo-FET)-based stress sensors realized with a pitch of 23 &#x03BC;m using a commercial complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The sensor elements make it possible to extract the distribution of the in-plane normal stress(More)
This paper reports on the piezoresistive characterization of low-doped crystalline silicon using the wafer-scale microtensile technique. Multiple test structures composed of &#38;#60;110&#x003E; and &#38;#60;100&#x003E; specimens bridging the gap between movable and fixed micromachined frames are processed in a single wafer and sequentially measured. In(More)
This paper reports the development and characterization of a highly integrated polyvalent CMOS stress sensor detecting five linearly independent, temperature compensated components of the six-dimensional stress space. The sensor has a footprint of only 29&#x00D7;29 &#x00B5;m<sup>2</sup>. It combines different piezoresistance sensors to detect the three(More)
This paper presents CMOS-based, high density arrays of 7&#x00D7;7 n- and p-type piezoresistive field effect transistor (piezo-FET) based stress sensors with a pitch of 23 &#x00B5;m for extracting the distribution of the in-plane normal stress difference &#x03C3;<inf>xx</inf> - &#x03C3;<inf>yy</inf> and the in-plane shear stress &#x03C3;<inf>xy</inf> under(More)
The test of whether a proposed mandatory vaccination program is constitutional needs updating. Jacobson v. Massachusetts, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court over a century ago, laid out the proper reasoning and concerns to be addressed when determining the legality of mandatory vaccinations, but its analysis is tailored to the extreme case of the smallpox(More)
Sensor systems based on piezoresistors have found a wide variety of applications whenever mechanical stress due to external mechanical input is to be determined. Such sensor elements are fabricated using commercial CMOS processes enabling the realization of highly integrated systems with electronics for signal amplification and multiplexing. They combine(More)