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One approach to resolving the complexities of chondrogenesis is to examine simplified systems in vitro. We analyzed cartilage differentiation by human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma. Marrow stromal cells were cultured as micromass pellets for 21 days in serum-free medium containing transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3, dexamethasone, and bone(More)
There is considerable interest in the biology and therapeutic potential of adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma, variously referred to as mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSCs). Human MSCs can expand rapidly in culture, but the rate of expansion and the yields of multipotential progenitors are inversely related to the plating density and(More)
For reasons that are not apparent, it has been difficult to isolate and expand the adult stem cells referred to as mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSCs) from murine bone marrow. We developed a protocol that provides rapidly expanding MSCs from 5 strains of inbred mice. The MSCs obtained from 5 different strains of mice were similar to human(More)
Quantitative assays for human DNA and mRNA were used to examine the paradox that intravenously (i.v.) infused human multipotent stromal cells (hMSCs) can enhance tissue repair without significant engraftment. After 2 x 10(6) hMSCs were i.v. infused into mice, most of the cells were trapped as emboli in lung. The cells in lung disappeared with a half-life of(More)
UNLABELLED We assayed gene expressions during adipogenesis of human MSCs. Microarray assays demonstrated time-dependent increases in expression of 67 genes, including 2 genes for transcription factors that were not previously shown to be expressed during adipogenesis. INTRODUCTION Increased numbers of bone marrow adipocytes have been observed in patients(More)
The human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma referred to as mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are of interest because they are easily isolated and expanded and are capable of multipotential differentiation. Here, we examined the ability of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, -4, and -6 to enhance in vitro(More)
Production rates (entry rate into blood plasma) and other metabolic parameters for the IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses of immunoglobulins in mammary secretions (ratio of about 7 to 1) were determined in cows around the time of parturition by both single-injection and continuous-infusion isotope-dilution techniques. Four cows were given a single dose of 150 to 200(More)
Human mesenchymal stem cells, or multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), are of interest for clinical therapy, in part because of their capacity for proliferation and differentiation. However, results from clinical trials and in vitro models have been variable, possibly because of MSC heterogeneity and a lack of standardization between MSC in vitro expansion(More)
In origin immunoglobulins in mammary secretions are both humoral, arising from the blood stream, and local, arising from production by plasmacytes in the mammary gland. The relative importance of each of these sources varies between species. In some species (human, rabbit, etc.), the transfer of maternal immunoglobulins to the blood stream of the neonate(More)