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Leaf-labelled trees are widely used to describe evolutionary relationships, particularly in biology. In this setting, extant species label the leaves of the tree, while the internal vertices correspond to ancestral species. Various techniques exist for reconstructing these evolutionary trees from data, and an important problem is to determine how " far(More)
Cdo and Boc encode cell surface Ig/fibronectin superfamily members linked to muscle differentiation. Data here indicate they are also targets and signaling components of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Although Cdo and Boc are generally negatively regulated by Hedgehog (HH) signaling, in the neural tube Cdo is expressed within the Shh-dependent floor(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for patterning and growth during mammalian embryogenesis. Transcriptional profiling identified Growth-arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) as a general negative target of Shh signaling. Data presented here define Gas1 as a novel positive component of the Shh signaling cascade. Removal of Gas1 results in a Shh dose-dependent loss of(More)
Secreted Hedgehog (HH) ligands signal through the canonical receptor Patched (PTCH1). However, recent studies implicate three additional HH-binding, cell-surface proteins, GAS1, CDO, and BOC, as putative coreceptors for HH ligands. A central question is to what degree these coreceptors function similarly and what their collective requirement in HH signal(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) proteins regulate important developmental processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. Although Patched acts as the main Hh receptor in Drosophila, Hh signaling absolutely requires the additional Hh-binding proteins Ihog and Boi. Here we show that, unexpectedly, cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNPs) lacking Boc and(More)
The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme transcribes all protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes and is globally regulated by Mediator - a large, conformationally flexible protein complex with a variable subunit composition (for example, a four-subunit cyclin-dependent kinase 8 module can reversibly associate with it). These biochemical characteristics(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ligand secreted by the notochord induces distinct ventral cell identities in the adjacent neural tube by a concentration-dependent mechanism. To study this process, we genetically engineered mice that produce bioactive, fluorescently labeled Shh from the endogenous locus. We show that Shh ligand concentrates in close association with(More)
Pancreatic cancer, a hypovascular and highly desmoplastic cancer, is characterized by tumor expression of Hedgehog (HH) ligands that signal to fibroblasts in the surrounding stroma that in turn promote tumor survival and growth. However, the mechanisms and consequences of stromal HH pathway activation are not well understood. Here, we show that the HH(More)
Terrestrial top-predators are expected to regulate and stabilise food webs through their consumptive and non-consumptive effects on sympatric mesopredators and prey. The lethal control of top-predators has therefore been predicted to inhibit top-predator function, generate the release of mesopredators and indirectly harm native fauna through trophic cascade(More)
Hedgehog (HH) signaling is essential for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis. In Drosophila, feedback upregulation of the HH receptor Patched (PTC; PTCH in vertebrates), is required to restrict HH signaling during development. By contrast, PTCH1 upregulation is dispensable for early HH-dependent patterning in mice. Unique to vertebrates are two(More)