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This introductory article to the special edition on glutamate neurotransmission in neuropsychiatric disorders provides an overview of glutamate neurotransmitter system physiology and pharmacology. Glutamate was only relatively recently recognized as the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, in part due to its ubiquitous nature and(More)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Traditional antidepressants are of limited efficacy and take weeks to months to yield full therapeutic effects. Thus, there is a clear need for effective rapid-acting antidepressant medications. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist, ketamine, has received a(More)
Hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) potassium channels are implicated in the control of neuronal excitability and are expressed widely in the brain. HCN4 is expressed in brain regions relevant to mood and anxiety disorders including specific thalamic nuclei, the basolateral amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine system. We therefore(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and hyperarousal that can arise immediately or many years after exposure to a traumatic event and injury. Although extensive research has been done over the past 30 years, the etiology of PTSD remains largely unknown.(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic condition that often produces lifelong morbidity, but few studies have examined long-term outcome (greater than 5 years) in adult patients. Available studies suggest that 32-74% of adult OCD patients will experience clinical improvement over the long term. However, these studies were conducted(More)
BACKGROUND Current attempts at understanding the heterogeneity in obsessive-compulsive disorder have relied on quantitative methods. The results of such work point toward a dimensional structure for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Existing qualitative work in obsessive-compulsive disorder has focused on understanding specific aspects of the(More)
Deficits in implicit learning, a process by which knowledge is acquired accretively through practice independent of conscious awareness, have been implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The weather-prediction task (WPT) was used to assess implicit learning in 26 unmedicated patients with OCD and 23 healthy controls. An additional analysis(More)
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