Benjamin J. Whitaker

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The definition of ‘life’ has invoked innumerable vigorous discussions, ranging from the religious to the scientific, philosophical and metaphysical, and still today no universally acceptable definition is available. This controversy is inescapable because of the absence of a theory of the nature of living systems1. There is, however, an urgent practical(More)
We experimentally investigate the transition to synchronization in a population of photochemical oscillators with weak global coupling. Above a critical coupling strength the oscillators join a one-phase group or two-phase clusters. The number of oscillators in each cluster depends on the initial phase distribution, and irregular switching of oscillators(More)
A representation of the search space in optical pulse shaping problems employing an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) is presented for use in closed-loop learning experiments where the optimal spectral phase function to some control problem is determined by an iterative learning algorithm. The representation allows the algorithm to select(More)
This paper investigates the origin of a quantum interference observed when NO(2) is dissociatively ionized by short pulses of ultraviolet light. We describe time-resolved measurements of NO(+), O(+), and NO(2)(+) ions produced following the interaction of NO(2) with a approximately 70 fs duration pulse centered close to 400 nm and a subsequent time-delayed(More)
The proposal and subsequent global use of an Internet standard based on chemical primary Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (chemical MIME) media type is reviewed. Examples of the configuration of this standard for use with Internet-based electronic mail and World Wide Web clients are shown. The longterm objectives of the integration and interoperability(More)
Omer Casher,a Gudge K. Chandramohan! Martin J. Hargreaves,6 Christopher Leach/ Peter Murray-Rust! Henry S. Rzepa,*Za Roger Sayle6 and Benjamin J. Whitaker * X a Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London, UK S W7 2A Y Chemistry Research Division, Glaxo Research and Development, Green ford, Middlesex, UK UB6 OHE(More)
Temperature and concentration fields have been investigated in the cylindrical combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine (RCM) by schlieren photography, chemiluminescent imaging and planar laser induced fluorescence of acetone and of formaldehyde in a 2-dimensional sheet across the diameter. The timescale of particular interest was up to 10 ms after(More)
Pump-probe photoionization has been used to map the relaxation processes taking place from highly vibrationally excited levels of the S(2) state of azulene, populated directly or via internal conversion from the S(4) state. Photoelectron spectra obtained by 1+2(') two-color time-resolved photoelectron imaging are invariant (apart from in intensity) to the(More)