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The cancer stem-cell hypothesis proposes that malignant tumors are likely to encompass a cellular hierarchy that parallels normal tissue and may be responsible for the maintenance and recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in patients. The purpose of this manuscript is to review methods for optimizing the derivation and culturing of stem-like cells(More)
PURPOSE The hypoxic microenvironment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is thought to increase resistance to cancer therapies. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia induces protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a regulator of cell cycle and cell death. The effects of PP2A on GBM tumor cell proliferation and survival during hypoxic conditions have not been studied.(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES To compare postoperative complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy using a standardized complication-reporting system and a standardized tumor-scoring system. METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of 189 consecutive patients with nephrometry scores available who underwent elective(More)
OBJECT The paracoccygeal approach allows for instrumentation of L5/S1 and L4/5 by using a transsacral rod (AxiaLIF; TransS1, Inc.). The authors analyzed clinical and radiographic outcomes of 1- or 2-level AxiaLIF procedures with focus on durability of the construct. METHODS This was a retrospective study of 38 consecutive patients who underwent either(More)
Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective StaXx XD (Spine Wave, Inc., Shelton, CT, United States) is an expandable polyaryl-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) wafer implant utilized in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. PEEK implants have been successfully used as interbody devices. Few studies have focused on expandable PEEK devices. The aim of(More)
OBJECT This study details the extent of resection and complications associated with endonasal endoscopic surgery for pituitary tumors invading the cavernous sinus (CS) using a moderately aggressive approach to maximize extent of resection through the medial CS wall while minimizing the risk of cranial neuropathy and blood loss. Tumor in the medial CS was(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) and especially cavernous malformations (CMs) in highly eloquent brain areas such as brainstem CMs are rare but possible events during pregnancy. Due to the few published cases in literature clear recommendations regarding the management are rare. In this study we evaluate the proceeding decision in pregnant(More)
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