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A hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeat expansion in the noncoding region of the C9ORF72 gene is the most common genetic abnormality in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The function of the C9ORF72 protein is unknown, as is the mechanism by which the repeat expansion could cause disease. Induced pluripotent(More)
Tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2) are the two well-characterized anthrax toxin receptors, each containing a von Willebrand factor A (vWA) domain responsible for anthrax protective antigen (PA) binding. Recently, a cell-based analysis was used to implicate another vWA domain-containing protein, integrin β1 as a(More)
OBJECT Gliomas are known to release excessive amounts of glutamate, inducing glutamate excitotoxic cell death in the peritumoral region and allowing the tumor to grow and to expand. Glutamate transporter upregulation has been shown to be neuroprotective by removing extracellular glutamate in a number of preclinical animal models of neurodegenerative(More)
We characterized an anti-cancer fusion protein consisting of anthrax lethal factor (LF) and the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A by (i) mutating the N-terminal amino acids and by (ii) reductive methylation to dimethylate all lysines. Dimethylation of lysines was achieved quantitatively and specifically without affecting binding of the fusion(More)
We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by(More)
Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is an A-B type toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, consisting of the cellular binding moiety, protective antigen (PA), and the catalytic moiety, lethal factor (LF). To target cells, PA binds to cell-surface receptors and is then proteolytically processed forming a LF-binding competent PA oligomer where each LF binding site is(More)
Given the high costs of conducting a drug-response trial, researchers are now aiming to use retrospective analyses to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify underlying genetic contributions to drug-response variation. To prevent confounding results from a GWAS to investigate drug response, it is necessary to account for concomitant(More)
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