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Understanding the core set of genes that are necessary for basic developmental functions is one of the central goals in biology. Studies in model organisms identified a significant fraction of essential genes through the analysis of null-mutations that lead to lethality. Recent large-scale next-generation sequencing efforts have provided unprecedented data(More)
UNLABELLED By linking differential gene expression to the chromosomal localization of genes, one can investigate microarray data for characteristic patterns of expression phenomena involving sizeable parts of specific chromosomes. We have implemented a statistical approach for identifying significantly differentially expressed chromosome regions. We(More)
The gene encoding the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXP2, is essential for developing the full articulatory power of human language. Mutations of FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), a speech and language disorder that compromises the fluent production of words and the correct use and comprehension of grammar. FOXP2 patients have(More)
Bipolar disorder is a common, heritable mental illness characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Despite considerable effort to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of bipolar disorder, causative genetic risk factors remain elusive. We conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of bipolar disorder in a large Old Order Amish pedigree.(More)
MOTIVATION A positional weight matrix (PWM) is a statistical representation of the binding pattern of a transcription factor estimated from known binding site sequences. Previous studies showed that for factors which bind to divergent binding sites, mixtures of multiple PWMs increase performance. However, estimating a conventional mixture distribution for(More)
Hidden Markov Models (HMM) are a class of statistical models which are widely used in a broad variety of disciplines for problems as diverse as understanding speech to finding genes which are implicated in causing cancer. Adaption for different problems is done by designing the models and, if necessary, extending the formalism. The General Hidden Markov(More)
BACKGROUND Cluster analysis is an important technique for the exploratory analysis of biological data. Such data is often high-dimensional, inherently noisy and contains outliers. This makes clustering challenging. Mixtures are versatile and powerful statistical models which perform robustly for clustering in the presence of noise and have been successfully(More)
BACKGROUND The study of functional subfamilies of protein domain families and the identification of the residues which determine substrate specificity is an important question in the analysis of protein domains. One way to address this question is the use of clustering methods for protein sequence data and approaches to predict functional residues based on(More)
We conducted blinded psychiatric assessments of 26 Amish subjects (52 ± 11 years) from four families with prevalent bipolar spectrum disorder, identified 10 potentially pathogenic alleles by exome sequencing, tested association of these alleles with clinical diagnoses in the larger Amish Study of Major Affective Disorder (ASMAD) cohort, and studied mutant(More)