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Anthropogenically induced global climate change has profound implications for marine ecosystems and the economic and social systems that depend upon them. The relationship between temperature and individual performance is reasonably well understood, and much climate-related research has focused on potential shifts in distribution and abundance driven(More)
Phenotypic plasticity is widespread in nature, and often involves ecologically relevant behavioral, physiological, morphological and life-historical traits. As a result, plasticity alters numerous interactions between organisms and their abiotic and biotic environments. Although much work on plasticity has focused on its patterns of expression and(More)
Inducible defenses have the potential to affect both invasion success and the structure of invaded communities. However, little is known about the cues used for risk-recognition that influence the expression of inducible defenses in invasive prey, because they involve a novel threat. In laboratory experiments, we investigated behavioral defenses induced by(More)
Morphological relationships change with overall body size and body size often varies among populations. Therefore, quantitative analyses of individual traits from organisms in different populations or environments (e.g., in studies of phenotypic plasticity) often adjust for differences in body size to isolate changes in allometry. Most studies of among(More)
The method of phylogenetically independent contrasts is commonly used for exploring cross-taxon relationships between traits. Here we show that this phylogenetic comparative method (PCM) can fail to detect correlated evolution when the underlying relationship between traits is nonlinear. Simulations indicate that statistical power can be dramatically(More)
Anthropogenically induced global climate change has profound implications for marine ecosystems and the economic and social systems that depend upon them. The relationship between temperature and individual performance is reasonably well understood, and much climate-related research has focused on potential shifts in distribution and abundance driven(More)
Per-offspring maternal investment is an integral part of life-history theory. To understand the evolution of per-offspring maternal investment in marine invertebrates, a number of mathematical models have been developed. These models examine how selection affects the proportion of maternally derived egg energy used to produce a newly metamorphosed juvenile(More)
Predator-induced hatching plasticity has been demonstrated in many species of amphibians. However, animals from other clades (e.g., marine species of molluscs and annelids) also place their embryos in capsules or gelatinous masses and might also exhibit hatching plasticity to predators. To date there is no evidence of predator-induced hatching plasticity(More)
Larvae of two annelids, the opheliid Armandia brevis and the echiurid Urechis caupo, captured small particles between opposed prototrochal and metatrochal ciliary bands and also captured large particles with wide ciliated mouths. The body volume of larval A. brevis increased more rapidly than the estimated maximum clearance rate as segments were added.(More)