Learn More
We have used 19.9 million papers over 5 decades and 2.1 million patents to demonstrate that teams increasingly dominate solo authors in the production of knowledge. Research is increasingly done in teams across nearly all fields. Teams typically produce more frequently cited research than individuals do, and this advantage has been increasing over time.(More)
This paper demonstrates that teamwork in science increasingly spans university boundaries, a dramatic shift in knowledge production that generalizes across virtually all fields of science, engineering, and social science. Moreover, elite universities play a dominant role in this shift. By examining 4.2 million papers published over three decades, we found(More)
This paper uses historical fluctuations in temperature within countries to identify its effects on aggregate economic outcomes. We find three primary results. First, higher temperatures substantially reduce economic growth in poor countries. Second, higher temperatures may reduce growth rates, not just the level of output. Third, higher temperatures have(More)
A rapidly growing body of research applies panel methods to examine how temperature, precipitation, and windstorms influence economic outcomes. These studies focus on changes in weather realizations over time within a given spatial area and demonstrate impacts on agricultural output, industrial output, labor productivity, energy demand, health, conflict,(More)
It has long been observed that hot countries tend to be poor. A correlation between heat and poverty was noted as early as Montesquieu (1750) and Huntington (1915), and it has been repeatedly demonstrated in contemporary data (e.g. Nordhaus 2006). Looking at a cross-section of the world in the year 2000, national income per-capita falls 8.5% per degree(More)
Data on Nobel Laureates show that the age-creativity relationship varies substantially more over time than across fields. The age dynamics within fields closely mirror field-specific shifts in (i) training patterns and (ii) the prevalence of theoretical contributions. These dynamics are especially pronounced in physics and coincide with the emergence of(More)
This paper uses annual variation in climate to examine the impact of temperature and precipitation on national economies. We find three primary results. First, higher temperatures substantially reduce economic growth in poor countries. Second, higher temperatures appear to reduce growth rates, not just the level of output. Third, higher temperatures have(More)
This paper presents a new framework for human capital measurement. The generalized framework can (i) substantially amplify the role of human capital in accounting for crosscountry income di¤erences and (ii) reconcile the existing con ‡ict between regression and accounting evidence in assessing the wealth and poverty of nations. One natural interpretation(More)