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Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters(More)
The impact of exotic species on native organisms is widely acknowledged, but poorly understood. Very few studies have empirically investigated how invading plants may alter delicate ecological interactions among resident species in the invaded range. We present novel evidence that antifungal phytochemistry of the invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, a(More)
Tractable microbial communities are needed to bridge the gap between observations of patterns of microbial diversity and mechanisms that can explain these patterns. We developed cheese rinds as model microbial communities by characterizing in situ patterns of diversity and by developing an in vitro system for community reconstruction. Sequencing of 137(More)
Microbial symbioses have evolved repeatedly across the tree of life, but the genetic changes underlying transitions to symbiosis are largely unknown, especially for eukaryotic microbial symbionts. We used the genus Amanita, an iconic group of mushroom-forming fungi engaged in ectomycorrhizal symbioses with plants, to identify both the origins and potential(More)
Plants have often been moved across the globe with intact root systems. These roots are likely to have housed symbiotic ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and the movement of plants may have facilitated the introduction of EM fungi.Here, we report data compiled from a newly created database of EM fungal introductions.We estimate the magnitude of EM fungal(More)
Attempts to understand the ecological effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], usually involve exposing today's ecosystems to expected future [CO2] levels. However, a major assumption of these approaches has not been tested--that exposing ecosystems to a single-step increase in [CO2] will yield similar responses to those of a gradual(More)
Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous inhabitants of eukaryotic genomes and their proliferation and dispersal shape genome architectures and diversity. Nevertheless, TE dynamics are often explored for one species at a time and are rarely considered in ecological contexts. Recent work with plant pathogens suggests a link between symbiosis and TE(More)
The invasion of non-native plants can alter the diversity and activity of soil microorganisms and nutrient cycling within forests. We used field studies to analyze the impact of a successful invasive groundcover, Alliaria petiolata, on fungal diversity, soil nutrient availability, and pH in five northeastern US forests. We also used laboratory and(More)
Although most species in the genus Amanita form ectomycorrhizal associations, a few are reported to be saprotrophs living in grassland habitats. Little is known about the ecology and distribution of these free-living Amanita species. We describe the ecology of Amanita thiersii, a species commonly collected in lawns throughout the Mississippi River Basin.(More)
Although it has become increasingly clear that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles in population, community, and ecosystem ecology, there is limited information on the spatial structure of the community composition of AMF in the field. We assessed small-scale spatial variation in the abundance and molecular diversity of AMF in a(More)