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Cell lineage analyses suggest that cortical neuroblasts are capable of undertaking both radial and tangential modes of cell movement. However, it is unclear whether distinct progenitors are committed to generating neuroblasts that disperse exclusively in either radial or tangential directions. Using highly unbalanced mouse stem cell chimeras, we have(More)
The distributions of rod and cone photoreceptors have been determined in the retina of the California ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi. Retinas were fixed by perfusion and the rods and cones were detected with indirect immunofluorescence using opsin antibodies. Local densities were determined at 2-mm intervals across the entire retina, from which(More)
The present study has used two different approaches for labelling progenitor cells at the optic vesicle stage in order to examine patterns of clonal expansion and cellular dispersion within the developing retina. X-inactivation transgenic mice and chimeric mice expressing the lacZ reporter transgene were examined during development and in adulthood to study(More)
The cyto-and myeloarchitecture of the rat's dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) display none of the laminar features characteristic of this thalamic region in carnivores and primates. Despite this, the rodent's nucleus contains a segregation of functionally and ocularly distinct afferents--organizational properties manifested in the prominent(More)
The mosaic of photoreceptors is regarded as a prime example of the precise control of cellular positioning in the vertebrate nervous system. This study was undertaken with the idea that understanding the intrinsic geometrical features of photoreceptor mosaics is a necessary step to unveil the biological mechanisms governing their formation. We show in the(More)
The present study has examined the birthdates of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer of the adult rat. Rat fetuses were exposed to tritiated thymidine in utero to label neurons departing the mitotic cycle at different gestational stages from embryonic days 12 through to 22. Upon reaching adulthood, rats were either given unilateral injections of(More)
The dendritic patterning of retinal horizontal cells has been shown to be specified by the cone photoreceptor afferents. The present investigation has addressed whether this specification is due to visually dependent synaptic transmission in the outer plexiform layer or to some other early, pre-visual, neural activity. Individually labeled horizontal cells(More)
BACKGROUND The retina has a unique three-dimensional architecture, the precise organization of which allows for complete sampling of the visual field. Along the radial or apicobasal axis, retinal neurons and their dendritic and axonal arbors are segregated into layers, while perpendicular to this axis, in the tangential plane, four of the six neuronal types(More)
The retina consists of ordered arrays of individual types of neurons for processing vision. Here, we show that such order is necessary for intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to function as irradiance detectors. We found that during development, ipRGCs undergo proximity-dependent Bax-mediated apoptosis. Bax mutant mice exhibit(More)
The nervous system has a modular architecture with neurons of the same type commonly organized in nonrandom arrays or mosaics. Modularity is essential to parallel processing of sensory information and has provided a key element for brain evolution, but we still know very little of the way neuronal mosaics form during development. Here we have identified the(More)