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The presence of growth-induced solid stresses in tumors has been suspected for some time, but these stresses were largely estimated using mathematical models. Solid stresses can deform the surrounding tissues and compress intratumoral lymphatic and blood vessels. Compression of lymphatic vessels elevates interstitial fluid pressure, whereas compression of(More)
The interstitial matrix is comprised of cross-linked collagen fibers, generally arranged in nonisotropic orientations. Spatial alignment of matrix components within the tissue can affect diffusion patterns of drugs. In this study, we developed a methodology for the calculation of diffusion coefficients of macromolecules and nanoparticles in collagenous(More)
The dense collagen network in tumors significantly reduces the penetration and efficacy of nanotherapeutics. We tested whether losartan--a clinically approved angiotensin II receptor antagonist with noted antifibrotic activity--can enhance the penetration and efficacy of nanomedicine. We found that losartan inhibited collagen I production by(More)
Although the role of TGF-β in tumor progression has been studied extensively, its impact on drug delivery in tumors remains far from understood. In this study, we examined the effect of TGF-β blockade on the delivery and efficacy of conventional therapeutics and nanotherapeutics in orthotopic mammary carcinoma mouse models. We used both genetic(More)
Molecular cancer therapy relies on interstitial diffusion for drug distribution in solid tumors. A mechanistic understanding of how tumor components affect diffusion is necessary to advance cancer drug development. Yet, because of limitations in current techniques, it is unclear how individual tissue components hinder diffusion. We developed multiscale(More)
Substitution of oxygen atoms by sulfur at various locations in the nucleic acid framework has led to analogs such as the DNA phosphorothioates and 4'-thio RNA. The phosphorothioates are excellent mimics of DNA, exhibit increased resistance to nuclease degradation compared with the natural counterpart, and have been widely used as first-generation antisense(More)
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