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<i>Do improvements in system performance demonstrated by batch evaluations confer the same benefit for real users? We carried out experiments designed to investigate this question. After identifying a weighting scheme that gave maximum improvement over the baseline in a non-interactive evaluation, we used it with real users searching on an instance recall(More)
BACKGROUND This systematic review is an update of evidence since the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation on breast cancer screening. PURPOSE To determine the effectiveness of mammography screening in decreasing breast cancer mortality among average-risk women aged 40 to 49 years and 70 years or older, the effectiveness of clinical(More)
Studies comparing Boolean and natural language searching with actual end-users are still inconclusive. The TREC interactive track provides a consensus-developed protocol for assessing this and other user-oriented information retrieval research questions. We recruited 28 experienced information professionals with library degrees to participate in this year's(More)
Cancer survivors often relapse due to evolving drug-resistant clones and repopulating tumor stem cells. Our preclinical study demonstrated that terminal cancer patient's lymphocytes can be converted from tolerant bystanders in vivo into effective cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in vitro killing patient's own tumor cells containing drug-resistant clones and tumor(More)
Females may be attracted to males genetically resistant to infectious diseases, and one potential mechanism for this mating bias is that such males may be better able to maintain high testosterone. To test these two hypotheses, we collected scent-marks from male house mice (Mus domesticus) genetically resistant and susceptible to Salmonella due to a single(More)
In the TREC-8 Interactive Track, our results indicated that the better performance obtained in batch searching evaluation do not translate into better performance by users in an instance recall task. This year we pursued this investigation further by performing the same experiments using the new question-answering task adopted in the TREC-9 Interactive(More)
HLA-restricted immune escape mutations that persist following HIV transmission could gradually spread through the viral population, thereby compromising host antiviral immunity as the epidemic progresses. To assess the extent and phenotypic impact of this phenomenon in an immunogenetically diverse population, we genotypically and functionally compared(More)
Deep sequencing allows for a rapid, accurate characterization of microbial DNA and RNA sequences in many types of samples. Deep sequencing (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) is being developed to assist with the diagnosis of a wide variety of infectious diseases. In this study, seven frozen brain samples from deceased subjects with recent(More)
Increasing prevalence and severity of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has necessitated novel antibacterial strategies. Ideally, new approaches would target bacterial pathogens while exerting selection for reduced pathogenesis when these bacteria inevitably evolve resistance to therapeutic intervention. As an example of such a management(More)