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Guggulsterone (GS) is the active substance in guggulipid, an extract of the guggul tree, Commiphora mukul, used to treat a variety of disorders in humans, including dyslipidemia, obesity, and inflammation. The activity of GS has been suggested to be mediated by antagonism of the receptor for bile acids, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Here, we demonstrate(More)
The mammalian anterior pituitary gland is a compound endocrine organ that regulates reproductive development and fitness, growth, metabolic homeostasis, the response to stress, and lactation, by actions on target organs such as the gonads, the liver, the thyroid, the adrenals, and the mammary gland. The protein and peptide hormones that control these(More)
The splicing factor SPF45 (RBM17) is frequently overexpressed in many solid tumors, and stable expression in HeLa cells confers resistance to doxorubicin and vincristine. In this study, we characterized stable transfectants of A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. In a 3-day cytotoxicity assay, human SPF45 overexpression conferred 3- to 21-fold resistance to(More)
An estrogen receptor (ER) β ligand (LY3201) with a preference for ERβ over ERα was administered in s.c. pellets releasing 0.04 mg/d. The brains of these mice were examined 3 d after treatment had begun. Although estradiol-17β is known to increase spine density and glutaminergic signaling, as measured by Golgi staining, a clear reduction in spines was(More)
The LHX3 transcription factor is required for pituitary and nervous system development in mammals. Mutations in the human gene are associated with hormone-deficiency diseases. The gene generates two mRNAs, hLHX3a and hLHX3b, which encode three proteins with different properties. Here, the cis elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the basal(More)
LHX3 is a LIM homeodomain transcription factor with established roles in pituitary and nervous system development. Mutations in the human LHX3 gene are associated with severe hormone deficiency diseases. Previous studies have shown that the human LHX3 gene produces at least three protein isoforms: LHX3a, LHX3b, and M2-LHX3. In gene activation assays, LHX3a(More)
Human follistatin is a regulatory glycoprotein with widespread biologic functions, including antiinflammatory activities, wound-healing properties, and muscle-stimulating effects. The role of follistatin in a wide range of biologic activities shows promise for potential clinical application, which has prompted considerable interest in the investigation of(More)
The high regenerative capacity of adult skeletal muscle relies on a self-renewing depot of adult stem cells, termed muscle satellite cells (MSCs). Androgens, known mediators of overall body composition and specifically skeletal muscle mass, have been shown to regulate MSCs. The possible overlapping function of androgen regulation of muscle growth and MSC(More)
The serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus in the CNS are involved in fear, anxiety and depression. Depression and anxiety occur quite frequently in postmenopausal women, but estrogen replacement to correct these CNS disorders is at present not favored because estrogen carries with it an increased risk for breast cancer. Serotonin synthesis,(More)
Follistatin (FST) is a member of the tissue growth factor β family and is a secreted glycoprotein that antagonizes many members of the family, including activin A, growth differentiation factor 11, and myostatin. The objective of this study was to explore the use of an engineered follistatin therapeutic created by fusing FST315 lacking heparin binding(More)