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OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on response and relapse rates in children and adolescents treated with paroxetine for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS Patients responding following 16 weeks of treatment (phase I) were randomized to continued paroxetine or to placebo for 16 additional weeks (phase II). OCD response(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the extant literature on the long-term outcome of child/adolescent-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD Medline and Psychlit databases were systematically searched for articles regarding long-term outcomes of child/adolescent-onset OCD. Meta-analysis regression was applied to evaluate predictors and persistence of OCD. (More)
OBJECTIVE The authors conducted a meta-analysis of published randomized, controlled medication trials in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to assess evidence for differential efficacy based on type of drug, study design, and outcome measure. METHOD A systematic literature search was performed for articles pertaining to the(More)
BACKGROUND Using an empirically derived instrument to reduce the assessor bias inherent in structured diagnostic interviews, we sought to re-examine and validate the putative comorbidity between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. METHOD We examined the correlation between(More)
What is the impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the phenotypic expression of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined phenotypic features, and functional and clinical correlates in youths with OCD, with and without comorbid ADHD, from a large sample of consecutively referred pediatric psychiatry patients. Although(More)
BACKGROUND The high prevalence and morbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in youth, the secretive nature of the disorder leading to under-recognition, and the lack of specialized child psychiatry services in many areas suggest that a simple, quick, and reliable screening tool to identify cases could be very useful to clinicians who work with(More)
The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of the sleep-wake cycle in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. After presenting an overview of the measurement and function of human sleep, we describe changes in sleep and circadian functioning across the life cycle. We then review evidence that, in adults, sleep and/or circadian rhythms are(More)
BACKGROUND Depression in the context of bipolar disorder (BDd) is often misdiagnosed as unipolar disorder depression (UDd) leading to poor clinical outcomes for many bipolar sufferers. We examined neural circuitry supporting emotion regulation in females with either BDd or UDd as a first stage toward identifying biomarkers that may differentiate BDd from(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) present with highly heterogeneous symptom profiles. We aimed to examine whether individual differences in amygdala activity to emotionally salient stimuli were related to heterogeneity in lifetime levels of depressive and subthreshold manic symptoms among adults with MDD. METHOD We compared age- and(More)
Inability to modulate attention away from emotional stimuli may be a key component of dysregulated emotion in bipolar disorder (BD). Previous studies of BD indicate abnormalities in neural circuitry underlying attentional control, yet few studies examined attentional control in the context of emotional distracters. We compared activity and connectivity in(More)