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In this study, both endogenous and exogenous N(2)-hydroxymethyl-dG adducts in nasal DNA of rats exposed to 0.7, 2, 5.8, 9.1, or 15.2 ppm [(13)CD(2)] formaldehyde for 6 h were quantified by a highly sensitive nano-UPLC-MS/MS method. Our data clearly demonstrated that exogenous formaldehyde DNA adducts form in a highly nonlinear fashion, with a 21.7-fold(More)
The presence of endogenous and exogenous N(2)-hydroxymethyl-dG adducts in DNA from the nasal mucosa and bone marrow of cynomolgus macaques exposed to 1.9 and 6.1 ppm of [(13)CD(2)]-formaldehyde for 6 h a day for 2 consecutive days was investigated using a highly sensitive nano-UPLC-MS/MS method with a limit of detection of 20 amol. Both exogenous and(More)
There is a strong need for science-based risk assessment that utilizes known data from diverse sources to arrive at accurate assessments of human health risk. Such assessments will protect the public health without mandating unreasonable regulation. This paper utilizes 30 years of research on three "known human carcinogens": formaldehyde, vinyl chloride(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, yet much remains unknown regarding their changes resulting from environmental exposures as they influence cellular signaling across various tissues. We set out to investigate miRNA responses to formaldehyde, a critical air pollutant and known carcinogen that disrupts miRNA expression profiles.(More)
Formaldehyde is not only a widely used chemical with well-known carcinogenicity but is also a normal metabolite of living cells. It thus poses unique challenges for understanding risks associated with exposure. N(2-)hydroxymethyl-dG (N(2)-HOMe-dG) is the main formaldehyde-induced DNA mono-adduct, which together with DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) and(More)
With formaldehyde as the major source of endogenous N⁶-formyllysine protein adducts, we quantified endogenous and exogenous N⁶-formyllysine in the nasal epithelium of rats exposed by inhalation to 0.7, 2, 5.8, and 9.1 ppm [¹³C²H₂]-formaldehyde using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Exogenous N⁶-formyllysine was detected in the nasal(More)
The beneficial outcome associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been reported in retrospective studies. To date, no prospective study has been conducted to confirm these outcomes. In addition, the potential mechanism by which PPIs improve measures of lung function and/or transplant-free survival in(More)
BACKGROUND Formaldehyde is an air pollutant present in both indoor and outdoor atmospheres. Because of its ubiquitous nature, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can influence disease caused by environmental exposures, yet miRNAs are understudied in relation to(More)
Formaldehyde is a known human and animal carcinogen that forms DNA adducts, and causes mutations. While there is widespread exposure to formaldehyde in the environment, formaldehyde is also an essential biochemical in all living cells. The presence of both endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde makes it difficult to develop exposure-specific DNA(More)
Formaldehyde is a widely used high production chemical that is also released as a byproduct of combustion, off-gassing of various building products, and as a fixative for pathologists and embalmers. What is not often realized is that formaldehyde is also produced as a normal physiologic chemical in all living cells. In 1980, chronic inhalation of high(More)