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It has recently been demonstrated that certain neural circuitry involved in the execution of specific motor actions is also used when the very same motor actions are observed or when language describing those actions is perceived. In humans, the pre-motor cortex is organized into regions that are involved in the execution and observation of actions(More)
When processing sentences about perceptible scenes and performable actions, language understanders activate perceptual and motor systems to perform mental simulations of those events. But little is known about exactly what linguistic elements activate modality-specific systems during language processing. While it is known that content words, like nouns and(More)
Various lines of research on language have converged on the premise that linguistic knowledge has as its basic unit pairings of form and meaning. The precise nature of the meanings involved, however, remains subject to the longstanding debate between proponents of arbitrary, abstract representations and those who argue for more detailed perceptuo-motor(More)
Embodied theories of language propose that word meaning is inextricably tied to-grounded in-mental representations of perceptual, motor, and affective experiences of the world. The four experiments described in this article demonstrate that accessing the meanings of action verbs like smile, punch, and kick requires language understanders to activate(More)
Mathematics requires precise inferences about abstract objects inaccessible to perception. How is this possible? One proposal is that mathematical reasoning, while concerned with entirely abstract objects, nevertheless relies on neural resources specialized for interacting with the world-in other words, mathematics may be grounded in spatial or sensorimotor(More)
Car crashes rank among the leading causes of death in the United States. Acknowledgements We acknowledge the assistance of Founded in 1947, the AAA Foundation in Washington, D.C. is a not-for-profit, publicly supported charitable research and education organization dedicated to saving lives by preventing traffic crashes and reducing injuries when crashes(More)