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Sequence diversity and the ages of the deepest nodes of the MSY phylogeny remain largely unexplored due to the severely biased collection of SNPs available for study. We characterized 68 worldwide Y chromosomes by high-coverage next-generation sequencing, including 18 deep-rooting ones, and identified 2386 SNPs, 80% of which were novel. Many aspects of this(More)
Although human Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b are quite rare in Africa, being found mainly in Asia and Europe, a group of chromosomes within the paragroup R-P25(*) are found concentrated in the central-western part of the African continent, where they can be detected at frequencies as high as 95%. Phylogenetic evidence and coalescence time(More)
Factors affecting the rate and pattern of the mutational process are being identified for human autosomes, but the same relationships for the male specific portion of the Y chromosome (MSY) are not established. We considered 3,390 mutations occurring in 19 sequence bins identified by sequencing 1.5 Mb of the MSY from each of 104 present-day chromosomes. The(More)
To shed light on the structure of the basal backbone of the human Y chromosome phylogeny, we sequenced about 200 kb of the male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY) from each of seven Y chromosomes belonging to clades A1, A2, A3, and BT. We detected 146 biallelic variant sites through this analysis. We used these variants to construct a(More)
Detailed population data were obtained on the distribution of novel biallelic markers that finely dissect the human Y-chromosome haplogroup E-M78. Among 6,501 Y chromosomes sampled in 81 human populations worldwide, we found 517 E-M78 chromosomes and assigned them to 10 subhaplogroups. Eleven microsatellite loci were used to further evaluate subhaplogroup(More)
Different X-homologous regions of the male-specific portion of the human Y chromosome (MSY) are characterized by a different content of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as reported in public databases. The possible role of X-to-Y nonallelic gene conversion in contributing to these differences remains poorly understood. We explored this issue(More)
It has long been believed that the male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY) is genetically independent from the X chromosome. This idea has been recently dismissed due to the discovery that X-Y gametologous gene conversion may occur. However, the pervasiveness of this molecular process in the evolution of sex chromosomes has yet to be(More)
More than 2700 unrelated individuals from Europe, northern Africa and western Asia were analyzed for the marker M269, which defines the Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2. A total of 593 subjects belonging to this haplogroup were identified and further analyzed for two SNPs, U106 and U152, which define haplogroups R1b1b2g and R1b1b2h, respectively. These(More)
Haplogroup E, defined by mutation M40, is the most common human Y chromosome clade within Africa. To increase the level of resolution of haplogroup E, we disclosed the phylogenetic relationships among 729 mutations found in 33 haplogroup DE Y-chromosomes sequenced at high coverage in previous studies. Additionally, we dissected the E-M35 subclade by(More)
Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) are nearly identical DNA sequences found at either end of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs). The high sequence similarity that exists among different LTRs suggests they could be substrate of ectopic gene conversion events. To understand the extent to which gene conversion occurs and to gain new insights into the evolutionary(More)