Beniamino Ciocchi

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CONTEXT Metabolic syndrome shows clustered metabolic abnormalities with major roles for insulin resistance and obesity. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone whose total plasma concentration (T-Ghr) is associated positively with insulin sensitivity and is reduced in obesity. Ghrelin circulates in acylated (A-Ghr) and desacylated (D-Ghr) forms, but their potential(More)
The metabolic response to trauma and sepsis involves an increased loss of body proteins. Specific sites of changes of protein and amino acid metabolism have been identified. In skeletal muscle, the rate of proteolysis is accelerated greatly. The rate of protein synthesis also may be increased but not enough to match the increase in degradation.(More)
Diminished muscular activity is associated with alterations of protein metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term muscle inactivity on regulation of whole-body protein deposition during amino acid infusion to simulate an experimental postprandial state. We studied nine healthy young volunteers at the end of 14 day periods of(More)
The pathogenesis of protein wasting in chronic renal failure is multifactorial. Potential mediators of protein catabolism in chronic uremia include anorexia, low protein-energy intake, increased cortisol and parathyroid hormone secretion, insulin resistance, metabolic acidosis and unidentified uremic toxins. In non-acidotic uremic patients the rate of(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the ability of pentoxifylline, a drug with hemorheological actions known to block tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release, to modulate whole-body protein kinetics in undialyzed patients with chronic uremia. METHODS Leucine rate of appearance (Ra) from proteolysis and leucine oxidation, a marker of net protein loss, were(More)
BACKGROUND Muscle inactivity and low energy intake commonly occur in persons with acute or chronic disease, in astronauts during space flight, and during aging. OBJECTIVE We used a crossover design to investigate the effects of the interactions of inactivity and calorie restriction on whole-body composition and protein kinetic regulation in 9 healthy(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients with cancer are characterized by decreased muscle protein synthesis and glutamine availability that contribute to an impaired immune response. These abnormalities worsen after surgical stress. We tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic doses of branched-chain amino acids would improve the early metabolic response after major cancer(More)
We tested the hypothesis that a reduced stimulation of whole-body protein synthesis by amino acid administration represents a major mechanism for the bed rest-induced loss of lean body mass. Healthy young subjects and matched controls were studied on the last day of a 14-day bed rest or ambulatory period, as part of the overall protocol "Short-term Bed Rest(More)
Glutamine is primarily synthesized in skeletal muscle and enables transfer of nitrogen to splanchnic tissues, kidneys and immune system. Discrepancy between increasing rates of glutamine utilization at whole body level and relative impairment of de novo synthesis in skeletal muscle leads to systemic glutamine deficiency and characterizes critical illness.(More)
We have investigated the effects of 24 h human recombinant growth hormone (hGH) administration on leg muscle glutamine exchange and protein kinetics in severely traumatized patients. Muscle amino acid exchange and protein balance were evaluated using the leg arteriovenous balance technique, whereas changes in skeletal muscle free amino acid concentrations(More)