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Tests or measures in clinical medicine or the social sciences can be used for three purposes: discriminating between subjects, predicting either prognosis or the results of some other test, and evaluating change over time. The choices made at each stage of constructing a quality of life index will differ depending on the purpose of the instrument. We(More)
The different measurement properties necessary for instruments whose goal is to detect differences between subjects at a single point in time (discriminative instruments) and those whose goal is to detect longitudinal change within subjects (evaluative instruments) is becoming increasingly recognized. Up to now, requirements for evaluative instruments have(More)
Two biocontrol preparations were tested for their ability to control Sphaerotheca fusca and Botrytis cinerea on greenhouse cucumber. Trichoderma harzianum T39 (TRICHODEX) spray reduced powdery mildew severity by up to 97% but its efficacy declined to 18–55% control as the epidemic progressed. Unlike on young leaves, on older leaves the control of powdery(More)
Small spots are a newly-defined manifestation ofBotrytis cinerea infection on phylloclades of ruscus. The dark, water-soaked spots encircled by a faint halo, which are found on young phylloclades, become brown lesions later but do not grow in size. Control of all symptoms caused byB. cinerea on ruscus (Ruscus hypoglossum L.),i.e., phylloclade rot or(More)
This paper reviews issues related to defining and demonstrating therapeutic equivalence. A set of guidelines are proposed to critically review clinical trials to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that an experimental therapy is therapeutically equivalent to a standard one. These guidelines include criteria for assessing whether(More)
Biological control of grey mould caused byBotrytis cinerea is achieved byTrichoderma harzianum under commercial greenhouse conditions. The establishment of populations ofTrichoderma in the phylloplane of treated plants was studied. After several applications of a formulated preparation, a level of 105 cfu per leaf was established. High relative humidity(More)
The most serious symptom of Botrytis cinerea in tomatoes grown in greenhouses is stem rotting. Lesions on the stem may result from direct infection or from progression of the rot along infected leaves, until infection approaches the stem. In a set of experiments conducted in commercial greenhouses, an experimental greenhouse and growth chambers, the(More)
We have previously cloned a 1016-bp-long complementary DNA (cDNA) clone (named NC330) encoding an inhibitor of virus replication (IVR)-like protein from induced-resistant leaves of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN. In the present work, NC330 cDNA was cloned in an Agrobacterium binary vector and introduced into the genome of N. tabacum cv. Samsun nn that is(More)
An analysis of hospital discharge data showed that Brampton children 4 years and under had higher rates of hospital admissions for asthma, bronchitis and upper respiratory infections than children in the same age group living in Mississauga and other Ontario municipalities. The present study was done to compare the prevalence and treatment of wheezing and(More)