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Interferon-inducible cholesterol-25-hydroxylase broadly inhibits viral entry by production of 25-hydroxycholesterol.
Constitutive and induced expression of DC‐SIGN on dendritic cell and macrophage subpopulations in situ and in vitro
The data demonstrate the relevant populations of DC andmacrophages that express DC‐SIGN in vivo where it may impact theefficiency of virus infection and indicate thatDC‐SIGN expression maybe involved in the Th2 axis of immunity.
Microglia Express CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3, but of These, CCR5 Is the Principal Coreceptor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Dementia Isolates
It is found that virus pseudotyped with the DS-br and RC-br envelopes can infect cells transfected with CD4 in conjunction with the G-protein-coupled receptors APJ, CCR8, and GPR15, which have been previously implicated in HIV entry.
Epitope Mapping of CCR5 Reveals Multiple Conformational States and Distinct but Overlapping Structures Involved in Chemokine and Coreceptor Function*
The results imply that chemokines and Env bind to distinct but overlapping sites in CCR5, and suggest that the N-terminal domain of C CR5 is more important for gp120 binding while the extracellular loops are moreimportant for inducing conformational changes in Env that lead to membrane fusion and virus infection.
EphrinB2 is the entry receptor for Nipah virus, an emergent deadly paramyxovirus
EphrinB2, the membrane-bound ligand for the EphB class of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), specifically binds to the attachment (G) glycoprotein of NiV, and data show that ephrin B2 is a functional receptor for NiV.
Extracellular Cysteines of CCR5 Are Required for Chemokine Binding, but Dispensable for HIV-1 Coreceptor Activity*
- C. Blanpain, Benhur Lee, M. Parmentier
- Biology, ChemistryThe Journal of Biological Chemistry
- 2 July 1999
Results indicate that both disulfide bonds of CCR5 are necessary for maintaining the structural integrity of the receptor necessary for ligand binding and signaling and Env binding and the mechanisms of HIV entry appear much less sensitive to alterations of C CR5 conformation.
An Orphan Seven-Transmembrane Domain Receptor Expressed Widely in the Brain Functions as a Coreceptor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
It is reported that APJ, an orphan seven-transmembrane domain receptor with homology to the angiotensin receptor family, functions as a coreceptor for a number of HIV-1 and SIV strains.
The soluble serum protein Gas6 bridges virion envelope phosphatidylserine to the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase Axl to mediate viral entry.
Galectin-9 binding to cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates the redox environment to enhance T-cell migration and HIV entry
- Shuguang Bi, P. Hong, Benhur Lee, L. Baum
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 13 June 2011
It is found that galectin-9 binding to PDI on Th2 cells results in increased cell migration through extracellular matrix via β3 integrins, identifying a unique mechanism to regulate T-cell migration.
DC-SIGNR, a DC-SIGN homologue expressed in endothelial cells, binds to human and simian immunodeficiency viruses and activates infection in trans
- S. Pöhlmann, E. Soilleux, R. Doms
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 27 February 2001
The presence of this efficient virus attachment factor on multiple endothelial cell types indicates that DC-SIGNR could play a role in the vertical transmission of primate lentiviruses, in the enabling of HIV to traverse the capillary endothelium in some organs, and in the presentation of virus to CD4-positive cells in multiple locations including lymph nodes.