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Sparse matter is abundant and has both strong local bonds and weak nonbonding forces, in particular nonlocal van der Waals (vdW) forces between atoms separated by empty space. It encompasses a broad spectrum of systems, like soft matter, adsorption systems and biostructures. Density-functional theory (DFT), long since proven successful for dense matter,(More)
It is shown that it is now possible to include van der Waals (vdW) interactions via a nonempirical implementation of density functional (DF) theory to describe the correlation energy in electronic structure calculations on infinite systems of no particular symmetry. The vdW-DF theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)] is applied to the adsorption of(More)
First-principles calculations of phenol adsorbed on two different surfaces, graphite͑0001͒ and ␣-Al 2 O 3 ͑0001͒, are performed with traditional semilocal density functional theory ͑DFT͒ and with a recently presented density functional ͑vdW-DF͒ that incorporates the dispersive van der Waals ͑vdW͒ interactions ͓Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 ͑2004͔͒. The vdW-DF(More)
A scheme within density functional theory is proposed that provides a practical way to generalize to unrestricted geometries the method applied with some success to layered geometries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 126402 (2003)]]. It includes van der Waals forces in a seamless fashion. By expansion to second order in a carefully chosen quantity contained in the(More)
We propose a second version of the van der Waals density functional of Dion et al. ͓Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 ͑2004͔͒, employing a more accurate semilocal exchange functional and the use of a large-N asymptote gradient correction in determining the vdW kernel. The predicted binding energy, equilibrium separation, and potential-energy curve shape are close(More)
The microscopic mechanism behind the extraordinary ability of ceria to store, release, and transport oxygen is explained on the basis of first-principles quantum mechanical simulations. The oxygen-vacancy formation energy in ceria is calculated for different local environments. The reversible CeO2-Ce2O3 reduction transition associated with oxygen-vacancy(More)
The importance of stacking interactions for the Twist and stability of DNA is investigated using the fully ab initio van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF). Our results highlight the role that binary interactions between adjacent sets of base pairs play in defining the sequence-dependent Twists observed in high-resolution experiments. Furthermore, they(More)
A density functional theory (DFT) that accounts for van der Waals (vdW) interactions in condensed matter, materials physics, chemistry, and biology is reviewed. The insights that led to the construction of the Rutgers-Chalmers van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) are presented with the aim of giving a historical perspective, while also emphasizing more(More)
The structure of liquid water at ambient conditions is studied in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in the NVE ensemble using van der Waals (vdW) density-functional theory, i.e., using the new exchange-correlation functionals optPBE-vdW and vdW-DF2, where the latter has softer nonlocal correlation terms. Inclusion of the more isotropic vdW(More)
To understand sparse systems, we must account for both strong local atom bonds and weak nonlocal van der Waals forces between atoms separated by empty space. A fully nonlocal functional form [Phys. Rev. B 62, 6997 (2000)]] of density-functional theory (DFT) is applied here to the layered systems graphite, boron nitride, and molybdenum sulfide to compute(More)