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BACKGROUND Many studies have shown that structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are already present by the time of index evaluation of first-episode patients. However, whether these abnormalities progressively worsen during the subsequent course of the disorder remains unresolved. METHODS To study the longitudinal progression of structural brain(More)
CONTEXT Progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia are thought to be due principally to the disease. However, recent animal studies indicate that antipsychotics, the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia patients, may also contribute to brain tissue volume decrement. Because antipsychotics are prescribed for long periods for schizophrenia patients(More)
BACKGROUND A standardized quantitative method for comparing dosages of different drugs is a useful tool for designing clinical trials and for examining the effects of long-term medication side effects such as tardive dyskinesia. Such a method requires establishing dose equivalents. An expert consensus group has published charts of equivalent doses for(More)
CONTEXT Relatively little is known about genetic determinants of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) prodomain single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a valine (Val)-to-methionine (Met) substitution is associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy volunteers and patients(More)
OBJECTIVE The relationship between cognition and outcome in people with schizophrenia has been established in studies that, for the most part, examined chronic patients and were cross-sectional in design. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between neurocognitive variables assessed at illness onset and functional outcome in a(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of this study was to compare the extent of cognitive deficits between adolescents and adults early in the course of schizophrenia. METHODS A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was performed on 49 adolescents with childhood- or adolescent-onset schizophrenia, 139 adults with adult-onset schizophrenia, 32 healthy adolescent(More)
OBJECTIVE Studies of patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis have demonstrated that they typically remain undiagnosed and untreated for 1-2 years. It has been postulated that prolonged untreated psychosis may have serious effects: poor response to neuroleptic medications, poor clinical outcomes, and direct neurotoxicity. This study(More)
The brain is a vastly interconnected organ and methods are needed to investigate its long range structure(S)-function(F) associations to better understand disorders such as schizophrenia that are hypothesized to be due to distributed disconnected brain regions. In previous work we introduced a methodology to reduce the whole brain S-F correlations to a(More)
OBJECTIVE Factors underlying progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. The authors investigated whether a gene polymorphism influencing neuroplasticity may contribute to longitudinal brain volume alterations. METHOD High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of the whole brain were obtained for 119 patients with(More)