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Proper growth of dendrites is critical to the formation of neuronal circuits, but the cellular machinery that directs the addition of membrane components to generate dendritic architecture remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that post-Golgi membrane trafficking is polarized toward longer dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vitro and toward(More)
Endocytosis of AMPA receptors and other postsynaptic cargo occurs at endocytic zones (EZs), stably positioned sites of clathrin adjacent to the postsynaptic density (PSD). The tight localization of postsynaptic endocytosis is thought to control spine composition and regulate synaptic transmission. However, the mechanisms that situate the EZ near the PSD and(More)
Postsynaptic membrane trafficking plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, but the organization of trafficking machinery within dendritic spines is poorly understood. We use immunocytochemical analysis of rat hippocampal neurons to show that proteins mediating endocytosis are systematically arrayed within dendritic spines, tangential to the synapse.(More)
The small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 are key regulators of the morphogenesis of actin-rich dendritic spines in neurons. However, little is known about how activated Rac1/Cdc42 regulates dendritic spines. Insulin receptor substrate 53 (IRSp53), which is highly expressed in the postsynaptic density (PSD), is known to link activated Rac1/Cdc42 to downstream(More)
Synaptic plasticity is associated with morphological changes in dendritic spines. The actin-based cytoskeleton plays a key role in regulating spine structure, and actin reorganization in spines is critical for the maintenance of long term potentiation. To test the hypothesis that a stable pool of F-actin rests in the spine "core," while a dynamic pool lies(More)
Spines may undergo rapid, activity-dependent changes in shape and size, reflecting reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. This remodeling is implicated in development and also in the late phase of long-term potentiation. However, the cellular mechanisms that convert activity into morphological change remain poorly understood, and little is known about(More)
Changes in the morphology of a dendritic spine require remodeling of its actin-based cytoskeleton. Biochemical mechanisms underlying actin remodeling have been studied extensively, but little is known about the physical organization of the actin-binding proteins that mediate remodeling in spines. Long-term potentiation-inducing stimuli trigger expansion of(More)
Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to several major psychiatric disorders, individual candidate genes account for only a small fraction of these disorders, leading to the suggestion that multigenetic pathways may be involved. Several known genetic risk factors for psychiatric disease are related to the regulation of actin polymerization,(More)
Excitatory glutamatergic synapses at dendritic spines exchange and modulate their receptor content via lateral membrane diffusion. Several studies have shown that the thin spine neck impedes the access of membrane and solute molecules to the spine head. However, it is unclear whether the spine neck geometry alone restricts access to dendritic spines or if a(More)
Spike generation is most effectively controlled by inhibitory inputs that target the perisomatic region of neurons. Despite the critical importance of this functional domain, very little is known about the organization of the GABAergic inputs contacting the perisomatic region of principal cells (PCs) in the basolateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemistry(More)